This documentation is archived and is not being maintained.

How to: Customize Data Binding Behaviors (WCF Data Services)

With WCF Data Services, you can supply custom logic that is called by the DataServiceCollection when an object is added or removed from the binding collection or when a property change is detected. This custom logic is provided as methods, referenced as Func delegates, that return a value of false when the default behavior should still be performed when the custom method completes and true when subsequent processing of the event should be stopped.

The examples in this topic supply custom methods for both the entityChanged and entityCollectionChanged parameters of DataServiceCollection. The examples in this topic use the Northwind sample data service and autogenerated client data service classes. This service and the client data classes are created when you complete the WCF Data Services quickstart.

Example

The following code-behind page for the XAML file creates a DataServiceCollection with custom methods that are called when changes occur to data that is bound to the binding collection. When the CollectionChanged event occurs, the supplied method prevents an item that has been removed from the binding collection from being deleted from the data service. When the PropertyChanged event occurs, the ShipDate value is validated to ensure that changes are not made to orders that have already shipped.

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Text;
using System.Windows;
using System.Windows.Controls;
using System.Windows.Data;
using System.Windows.Documents;
using System.Windows.Input;
using System.Windows.Media;
using System.Windows.Media.Imaging;
using System.Windows.Navigation;
using System.Windows.Shapes;
using System.Data.Services.Client;
using NorthwindClient.Northwind;
using System.Collections.Specialized;

namespace NorthwindClient
{
    public partial class CustomerOrdersCustom : Window
    {
        private NorthwindEntities context;
        private DataServiceCollection<Customer> trackedCustomers;
        private const string customerCountry = "Germany";
        private const string svcUri = "http://localhost:12345/Northwind.svc/";

        public CustomerOrdersCustom()
        {
            InitializeComponent();
        }

        private void Window_Loaded(object sender, RoutedEventArgs e)
        {
            try
            {
                // Initialize the context for the data service.
                context = new NorthwindEntities(new Uri(svcUri));

                // Create a LINQ query that returns customers with related orders.
                var customerQuery = from cust in context.Customers.Expand("Orders")
                                    where cust.Country == customerCountry
                                    select cust;

                // Create a new collection for binding based on the LINQ query.
                trackedCustomers = new DataServiceCollection<Customer>(customerQuery, 
                    TrackingMode.AutoChangeTracking,"Customers", 
                    OnPropertyChanged, OnCollectionChanged);

                // Bind the root StackPanel element to the collection;
                // related object binding paths are defined in the XAML.
                this.LayoutRoot.DataContext = trackedCustomers;
            }
            catch (DataServiceQueryException ex)
            {
                MessageBox.Show("The query could not be completed:\n" + ex.ToString());
            }
            catch (InvalidOperationException ex)
            {
                MessageBox.Show("The following error occurred:\n" + ex.ToString());
            }
        }

        // Method that is called when the CollectionChanged event is handled.
        private bool OnCollectionChanged(
            EntityCollectionChangedParams entityCollectionChangedinfo)
        {
            if (entityCollectionChangedinfo.Action ==
                NotifyCollectionChangedAction.Remove)
            {
                // Delete the related items when an order is deleted.
                if (entityCollectionChangedinfo.TargetEntity.GetType() == typeof(Order))
                {
                    // Get the context and object from the supplied parameter.
                    DataServiceContext context = entityCollectionChangedinfo.Context;
                    Order deletedOrder = entityCollectionChangedinfo.TargetEntity as Order;

                    if (deletedOrder.Order_Details.Count == 0)
                    {
                        // Load the related OrderDetails.
                        context.LoadProperty(deletedOrder, "Order_Details");
                    }

                    // Delete the order and its related items;
                    foreach (Order_Detail item in deletedOrder.Order_Details)
                    {
                        context.DeleteObject(item);
                    }

                    // Delete the order and then return true since the object is already deleted.
                    context.DeleteObject(deletedOrder);

                    return true;
                }
                else
                {
                    return false;
                }
            }
            else 
            {
                // Use the default behavior.
                return false;
            }
        }

        // Method that is called when the PropertyChanged event is handled.
        private bool OnPropertyChanged(EntityChangedParams entityChangedInfo)
        {
            // Validate a changed order to ensure that changes are not made 
            // after the order ships.
            if ((entityChangedInfo.Entity.GetType() == typeof(Order)) && 
                ((Order)(entityChangedInfo.Entity)).ShippedDate < DateTime.Today)
            {
                throw new ApplicationException(string.Format(
                    "The order {0} cannot be changed because it shipped on {1}.",
                    ((Order)(entityChangedInfo.Entity)).OrderID, 
                    ((Order)(entityChangedInfo.Entity)).ShippedDate));
            }
            return false;
        }
        
        private void deleteButton_Click(object sender, RoutedEventArgs e)
        {
            if (customerIDComboBox.SelectedItem != null)
            {
                // Get the Orders binding collection.
                DataServiceCollection<Order> trackedOrders =
                    ((Customer)(customerIDComboBox.SelectedItem)).Orders;

                // Remove the currently selected order.
                trackedOrders.Remove((Order)(ordersDataGrid.SelectedItem));
            }
        }

        private void saveChangesButton_Click(object sender, RoutedEventArgs e)
        {
            try
            {
                // Save changes to the data service.
                context.SaveChanges();
            }
            catch (Exception ex)
            {
                MessageBox.Show(ex.ToString());
            }
        }
    }
}

The following XAML defines the window for the previous example.

<Window x:Class="CustomerOrdersCustom"
             xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml/presentation"
             xmlns:x="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml"
             xmlns:mc="http://schemas.openxmlformats.org/markup-compatibility/2006" 
             Height="423" Width="679" Loaded="Window_Loaded" >
    <StackPanel Orientation="Vertical" Height="Auto" Name="LayoutRoot" Width="Auto">
        <Label Content="Customer ID" Margin="20,0,0,0" />
        <ComboBox Name="customerIDComboBox" DisplayMemberPath="CustomerID" ItemsSource="{Binding}" 
                  IsSynchronizedWithCurrentItem="True" SelectedIndex="0" Height="23" Width="120" 
                  HorizontalAlignment="Left" Margin="20,0,0,0" VerticalAlignment="Center" />
        <ListView ItemsSource="{Binding Path=Orders}" Name="ordersDataGrid" Margin="34,46,34,50">
            <ListView.View>
                <GridView AllowsColumnReorder="False" ColumnHeaderToolTip="Line Items">
                    <GridViewColumn DisplayMemberBinding="{Binding Path=OrderID, Mode=OneWay}" 
                        Header="Order ID" Width="50"/>
                    <GridViewColumn DisplayMemberBinding="{Binding Path=OrderDate, Mode=TwoWay}" 
                        Header="Order Date" Width="50"/>
                    <GridViewColumn DisplayMemberBinding="{Binding Path=Freight, Mode=TwoWay}" 
                        Header="Freight Cost" Width="50"/>
                </GridView>
            </ListView.View>
        </ListView>
        <StackPanel Orientation="Horizontal">
            <Button Name="deleteButton" Content="Delete Order" Click="deleteButton_Click" 
                Width="80" Height="30" Margin="450,0,10,0"/>
            <Button Name="saveChangesButton" Content="Save Changes" Click="saveChangesButton_Click" 
                Width="80" Height="30" Margin="10,0,0,0"/>
        </StackPanel>
    </StackPanel>
</Window>

See Also

Show: