1.1 Glossary

This document uses the following terms:

Active Directory: A general-purpose network directory service. Active Directory also refers to the Windows implementation of a directory service. Active Directory stores information about a variety of objects in the network. Importantly, user accounts, computer accounts, groups, and all related credential information used by the Windows implementation of Kerberos are stored in Active Directory. Active Directory is either deployed as Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) or Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS). [MS-ADTS] describes both forms. For more information, see [MS-AUTHSOD] section 1.1.1.5.2, Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) versions 2 and 3, Kerberos, and DNS.

active replica: A name given to a server that hosts content and is expected to serve that content to clients.

address type: An identifier for the type of email address, such as SMTP and EX.

ASCII: The American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) is an 8-bit character-encoding scheme based on the English alphabet. ASCII codes represent text in computers, communications equipment, and other devices that work with text. ASCII refers to a single 8-bit ASCII character or an array of 8-bit ASCII characters with the high bit of each character set to zero.

binary large object (BLOB): A discrete packet of data that is stored in a database and is treated as a sequence of uninterpreted bytes.

change number set (CNSET): A data structure that is similar to an IDSET, in which the global counters (GLOBCNTs) represent changes instead of messaging objects.

code page: An ordered set of characters of a specific script in which a numerical index (code-point value) is associated with each character. Code pages are a means of providing support for character sets and keyboard layouts used in different countries. Devices such as the display and keyboard can be configured to use a specific code page and to switch from one code page (such as the United States) to another (such as Portugal) at the user's request.

Coordinated Universal Time (UTC): A high-precision atomic time standard that approximately tracks Universal Time (UT). It is the basis for legal, civil time all over the Earth. Time zones around the world are expressed as positive and negative offsets from UTC. In this role, it is also referred to as Zulu time (Z) and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). In these specifications, all references to UTC refer to the time at UTC-0 (or GMT).

distinguished name (DN): In the Active Directory directory service, the unique identifier of an object in Active Directory, as described in [MS-ADTS] and [RFC2251].

double-byte character set (DBCS): A character set (1) that can use more than one byte to represent a single character. A DBCS includes some characters that consist of 1 byte and some characters that consist of 2 bytes. Languages such as Chinese, Japanese, and Korean use DBCS.

enterprise/site/server distinguished name (ESSDN): An X500 DN that identifies an entry in an abstract naming scheme that is separate from an address book. The naming scheme defines enterprises, which contain sites, and sites contain servers and users. There is no concrete data structure that embodies an ESSDN. Instead, an address book entry can contain an ESSDN as a property of the entry.

EntryID: A sequence of bytes that is used to identify and access an object.

folder associated information (FAI): A collection of Message objects that are stored in a Folder object and are typically hidden from view by email applications. An FAI Message object is used to store a variety of settings and auxiliary data, including forms, views, calendar options, favorites, and category lists.

Gateway Address Routing Table (GWART): A list of values that specifies the address types that are supported by transport gateways.

Global Address List (GAL): An address list that conceptually represents the default address list for an address book.

global directory: A globally accessible database containing entries that correlate servers, databases, and user mailboxes. The server uses the correlated data to determine, for a specific user, which server and database to access for a private mailbox logon or a public folder logon. The global directory also contains other pertinent configuration information that is crucial to the overall operation of the client/server deployment. Active Directory can be used for the global directory, but the implementer determines what to use for the global directory.

handle: Any token that can be used to identify and access an object such as a device, file, or a window.

Inbox folder: A special folder that is the default location for Message objects received by a user or resource.

little-endian: Multiple-byte values that are byte-ordered with the least significant byte stored in the memory location with the lowest address.

local replica: A copy of the data in a mailbox that exists on the client.

Logon object: A Server object that provides access to a private mailbox or a public folder. A client obtains a Logon object by issuing a RopLogon remote operation (ROP) to a server.

lowest-cost server: A server whose communication cost to access is the lowest in a list of servers.

mailbox: A message store that contains email, calendar items, and other Message objects for a single recipient.

message class: A property that loosely defines the type of a message, contact, or other Personal Information Manager (PIM) object in a mailbox.

message store: A unit of containment for a single hierarchy of Folder objects, such as a mailbox or public folders.

Out of Office (OOF): One of the possible values for the free/busy status on an appointment. It indicates that the user will not be in the office during the appointment.

public folder: A Folder object that is stored in a location that is publicly available.

Receive folder: A Folder object that is configured to be the destination for email messages that are delivered.

remote operation (ROP): An operation that is invoked against a server. Each ROP represents an action, such as delete, send, or query. A ROP is contained in a ROP buffer for transmission over the wire.

remote procedure call (RPC): A context-dependent term commonly overloaded with three meanings. Note that much of the industry literature concerning RPC technologies uses this term interchangeably for any of the three meanings. Following are the three definitions: (*) The runtime environment providing remote procedure call facilities. The preferred usage for this meaning is "RPC runtime". (*) The pattern of request and response message exchange between two parties (typically, a client and a server). The preferred usage for this meaning is "RPC exchange". (*) A single message from an exchange as defined in the previous definition. The preferred usage for this term is "RPC message". For more information about RPC, see [C706].

replica: A server that hosts an instance of a message item in a folder. 

replica GUID (REPLGUID): A value that represents a namespace for identifiers. If a REPLGUID is combined with a GLOBSET, the result is a set of global identifiers. A REPLGUID value has an associated replica ID (REPLID) that is used in its place on disk and on the wire.

replica ID (REPLID): A value that is mapped to a replica GUID (REPLGUID) that identifies a namespace for IDs within a given logon. REPLIDs are used on disk and on the wire for compactness, and are replaced with the corresponding REPLGUID for external consumption.

Root folder: The special folder that is the top-level folder in a message store hierarchy. It contains all other Folder objects in that message store.

ROP request: See ROP request buffer.

ROP request buffer: A ROP buffer that a client sends to a server to be processed.

ROP response: See ROP response buffer.

ROP response buffer: A ROP buffer that a server sends to a client to be processed.

Server object: An object on a server that is used as input or created as output for remote operations (ROPs).

Session Context: A server-side partitioning for client isolation. All client actions against a server are scoped to a specific Session Context. All messaging objects and data that is opened by a client are isolated to a Session Context.

special folder: One of a default set of Folder objects that can be used by an implementation to store and retrieve user data objects.

Store object: An object that is used to store mailboxes and public folder content.

Unicode: A character encoding standard developed by the Unicode Consortium that represents almost all of the written languages of the world. The Unicode standard [UNICODE5.0.0/2007] provides three forms (UTF-8, UTF-16, and UTF-32) and seven schemes (UTF-8, UTF-16, UTF-16 BE, UTF-16 LE, UTF-32, UTF-32 LE, and UTF-32 BE).

MAY, SHOULD, MUST, SHOULD NOT, MUST NOT: These terms (in all caps) are used as defined in [RFC2119]. All statements of optional behavior use either MAY, SHOULD, or SHOULD NOT.

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