1.1 Glossary

This document uses the following terms:

base64 encoding: A binary-to-text encoding scheme whereby an arbitrary sequence of bytes is converted to a sequence of printable ASCII characters, as described in [RFC4648].

binary large object (BLOB): A discrete packet of data that is stored in a database and is treated as a sequence of uninterpreted bytes.

blind carbon copy (Bcc) recipient: An addressee on a Message object that is not visible to recipients of the Message object.

Calendar folder: A Folder object that contains Calendar objects.

carbon copy (Cc) recipient: An address on a Message object that is visible to recipients of the Message object but is not necessarily expected to take any action.

Contacts folder: A Folder object that contains Contact objects.

Coordinated Universal Time (UTC): A high-precision atomic time standard that approximately tracks Universal Time (UT). It is the basis for legal, civil time all over the Earth. Time zones around the world are expressed as positive and negative offsets from UTC. In this role, it is also referred to as Zulu time (Z) and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). In these specifications, all references to UTC refer to the time at UTC-0 (or GMT).

delegate: A user or resource that has permissions to act on behalf of another user or resource.

Deleted Items folder: A special folder that is the default location for objects that have been deleted.

dictionary: A collection of key/value pairs. Each pair consists of a unique key and an associated value. Values in the dictionary are retrieved by providing a key for which the dictionary returns the associated value.

distribution list: A collection of users, computers, contacts, or other groups that is used only for email distribution, and addressed as a single recipient.

Domain Name System (DNS): A hierarchical, distributed database that contains mappings of domain names (1) to various types of data, such as IP addresses. DNS enables the location of computers and services by user-friendly names, and it also enables the discovery of other information stored in the database.

Drafts folder: A special folder that is the default location for Message objects that have been saved but not sent.

endpoint: A communication port that is exposed by an application server for a specific shared service and to which messages can be addressed.

free/busy message: A message that is stored in a public folder and contains free/busy data.

free/busy status: A property of an appointment that indicates how an appointment on the calendar of an attendee or resource affects their availability.

Hypertext Markup Language (HTML): An application of the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) that uses tags to mark elements in a document, as described in [HTML].

Inbox folder: A special folder that is the default location for Message objects received by a user or resource.

Information Rights Management (IRM): A technology that provides persistent protection to digital data by using encryption, certificates (1), and authentication (2). Authorized recipients or users acquire a license to gain access to the protected files according to the rights or business rules that are set by the content owner.

Journal folder: A Folder object that contains Journal objects.

Junk Email folder: A special folder that is the default location for Message objects that are determined to be junk email by a Junk Email rule.

mailbox: A message store that contains email, calendar items, and other Message objects for a single recipient.

Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME): A set of extensions that redefines and expands support for various types of content in email messages, as described in [RFC2045], [RFC2046], and [RFC2047].

Notes folder: A Folder object that contains Note objects.

OOF message: A message that is sent in response to incoming messages and indicates that the user is currently Out of Office (OOF).

Out of Office (OOF): One of the possible values for the free/busy status on an appointment. It indicates that the user will not be in the office during the appointment.

Outbox folder: A special folder that contains Message objects that are submitted to be sent.

plain text: Text that does not have markup. See also plain text message body.

public folder: A Folder object that is stored in a location that is publicly available.

real item: An item that can be stored in a mail server database, such as a calendar item, task, or contact.

recurrence pattern: Information for a repeating event, such as the start and end time, the number of occurrences, and how occurrences are spaced, such as daily, weekly, or monthly.

recurring task: A series of Task objects that are described by a recurrence pattern.

S/MIME (Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions): A set of cryptographic security services, as described in [RFC5751].

search folder: A Folder object that provides a means of querying for items that match certain criteria. The search folder includes the search folder definition message and the search folder container.

security descriptor: A data structure containing the security information associated with a securable object. A security descriptor identifies an object's owner by its security identifier (SID). If access control is configured for the object, its security descriptor contains a discretionary access control list (DACL) with SIDs for the security principals who are allowed or denied access. Applications use this structure to set and query an object's security status. The security descriptor is used to guard access to an object as well as to control which type of auditing takes place when the object is accessed. The security descriptor format is specified in [MS-DTYP] section 2.4.6; a string representation of security descriptors, called SDDL, is specified in [MS-DTYP] section 2.5.1.

security identifier (SID): An identifier for security principals in Windows that is used to identify an account or a group. Conceptually, the SID is composed of an account authority portion (typically a domain) and a smaller integer representing an identity relative to the account authority, termed the relative identifier (RID). The SID format is specified in [MS-DTYP] section 2.4.2; a string representation of SIDs is specified in [MS-DTYP] section 2.4.2 and [MS-AZOD] section

Sent Items folder: A special folder that is the default location for storing copies of Message objects after they are submitted or sent.

Short Message Service (SMS): A communications protocol that is designed for sending text messages between mobile phones.

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP): A member of the TCP/IP suite of protocols that is used to transport Internet messages, as described in [RFC5321].

SOAP: A lightweight protocol for exchanging structured information in a decentralized, distributed environment. SOAP uses XML technologies to define an extensible messaging framework, which provides a message construct that can be exchanged over a variety of underlying protocols. The framework has been designed to be independent of any particular programming model and other implementation-specific semantics. SOAP 1.2 supersedes SOAP 1.1. See [SOAP1.2-1/2003].

SOAP action: The HTTP request header field used to indicate the intent of the SOAP request, using a URI value. See [SOAP1.1] section 6.1.1 for more information.

SOAP body: A container for the payload data being delivered by a SOAP message to its recipient. See [SOAP1.2-1/2007] section 5.3 for more information.

SOAP fault: A container for error and status information within a SOAP message. See [SOAP1.2-1/2007] section 5.4 for more information.

SOAP header: A mechanism for implementing extensions to a SOAP message in a decentralized manner without prior agreement between the communicating parties. See [SOAP1.2-1/2007] section 5.2 for more information.

SOAP message: An XML document consisting of a mandatory SOAP envelope, an optional SOAP header, and a mandatory SOAP body. See [SOAP1.2-1/2007] section 5 for more information.

Tasks folder: A Folder object that contains Task objects.

To recipient: See primary recipient.

Unified Messaging: A set of components and services that enable voice, fax, and email messages to be stored in a user's mailbox and accessed from a variety of devices.

Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): A string that identifies a resource. The URI is an addressing mechanism defined in Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax [RFC3986].

Uniform Resource Locator (URL): A string of characters in a standardized format that identifies a document or resource on the World Wide Web. The format is as specified in [RFC1738].

user principal name (UPN): A user account name (sometimes referred to as the user logon name) and a domain name that identifies the domain in which the user account is located. This is the standard usage for logging on to a Windows domain. The format is: someone@example.com (in the form of an email address). In Active Directory, the userPrincipalName attribute (2) of the account object, as described in [MS-ADTS].

web service: A unit of application logic that provides data and services to other applications and can be called by using standard Internet transport protocols such as HTTP, Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), or File Transfer Protocol (FTP). Web services can perform functions that range from simple requests to complicated business processes.

Web Services Description Language (WSDL): An XML format for describing network services as a set of endpoints that operate on messages that contain either document-oriented or procedure-oriented information. The operations and messages are described abstractly and are bound to a concrete network protocol and message format in order to define an endpoint. Related concrete endpoints are combined into abstract endpoints, which describe a network service. WSDL is extensible, which allows the description of endpoints and their messages regardless of the message formats or network protocols that are used.

XML namespace: A collection of names that is used to identify elements, types, and attributes in XML documents identified in a URI reference [RFC3986]. A combination of XML namespace and local name allows XML documents to use elements, types, and attributes that have the same names but come from different sources. For more information, see [XMLNS-2ED].

XML namespace prefix: An abbreviated form of an XML namespace, as described in [XML].

XML schema: A description of a type of XML document that is typically expressed in terms of constraints on the structure and content of documents of that type, in addition to the basic syntax constraints that are imposed by XML itself. An XML schema provides a view of a document type at a relatively high level of abstraction.

MAY, SHOULD, MUST, SHOULD NOT, MUST NOT: These terms (in all caps) are used as defined in [RFC2119]. All statements of optional behavior use either MAY, SHOULD, or SHOULD NOT.