data region: A region of a table that encompasses the range of cells that contains the table records. A data region does not include the header row (1), insert row, or total row of a table.
data source: (1) A database, web service, disk, file, or other collection of information from which data is queried or submitted. Supported data sources vary based on application and data provider.
(2) A collection of fields and groups that define and store the data for an InfoPath form. Controls in a form are bound to the fields and groups in the data sources of the form. See also main data source and secondary data source.
(3) A specified data source type, connection string, and credentials, which can be saved separately to a report server and shared among report projects or embedded in a report definition (.rdl) file.
(4) A physical data source.
database: (1) For the purposes of the Netlogon RPC, a database is a collection of user accounts, machine accounts, aliases, groups, and policies, managed by a component. The database, or the component managing the database, must expose a mechanism to enable Netlogon to gather changes from and apply changes to the database. Additionally, it must export a database serial number in order to track changes for efficient replication.
(2) In Distributed File System Replication (DFS-R), the database maintained by the Microsoft implementation of DFS-R maintains the local version chain vector and one record for each resource that is tracked, including tombstones for deleted resources, such that deletion of files can be propagated in a timely fashion.
database object: (1) An object such as a table, query, form, report, macro, or module that can be referenced by name in a database, database application, or database project.
(2) A representation of a named set of attribute value pairs that a protocol exposes.
DataClass: A type of MetadataObject that represents a type of a business data object obtained from a line-of-business (LOB) system. Instances of a DataClass have transient identity. DataClasses are contained by LobSystems and Methods.
datagram: A style of communication offered by a network transport protocol where each message is contained within a single network packet. In this style, there is no requirement for establishing a session prior to communication, as opposed to a connection-oriented style.
dataset: (1) A set of multidimensional data that is returned when a multidimensional expression (MDX) SELECT statement is executed. A dataset represents a slice of a cube as defined by the members and axes that are specified in the query.
(2) A named specification that includes a data source definition, a query definition, and optional parameter values, calculated fields, and filtering and collation information as part of a report definition (.rdl) file. An .rdl file can have multiple datasets.
DCOM: See Distributed Component Object Model (DCOM). Can also refer to the Distributed Component Object Model (DCOM) Remote Protocol Specification [MS-DCOM].
declared property: A property that is statically declared by a Property element as part of the definition of a structural type. For example, in the context of an EntityType, a declared property includes all properties of an EntityType that are represented by the Property child elements of the EntityType element that defines the EntityType.
decryption: In cryptography, the process of transforming encrypted information to its original clear text form.
de-encapsulating RTF reader: A Rich Text Format (RTF) reader, as described in [MSFT-RTF], that recognizes if an input RTF document contains encapsulated HTML or plain text, and extracts and renders the original HTML or plain text instead of the encapsulating RTF content.
Deferred Action Folder (DAF): A special folder where a server places all Deferred Action Messages and Deferred Error Messages to be acted on by a client. The Deferred Action Folder is not visible to a user.
Deferred Action Message (DAM): A hidden message indicating to a client that it needs to execute one or more rules on another user-visible message in the store.
Deferred Error Message (DEM): A hidden message indicating to a client that it needs to present the user with an error indicating that a server-side rule failed to execute.
delegate: A user or resource that has permissions to act on behalf of another user or resource.
delegate access: The access that is granted by a delegator to a delegate and is used by the delegate to access the delegator’s account.
delegate data folder: A special folder that contains the Delegate Information object.
Delegate Information object: A Message object that contains properties specifying delegate access settings for resources in a delegator’s mailbox.
delegate rule: A server-side rule that is used to send mail to delegates on behalf of a delegator.
delegator: A user or resource for which another user or resource has permission to act on its behalf.
Deleted Items folder: A special folder that is the default location for objects that have been deleted.
deleted-object: An object that has been deleted, but remains in storage until a configured amount of time (the deleted-object lifetime) has passed, after which the object is transformed to a recycled-object. Unlike a recycled-object or a tombstone, a deleted-object maintains virtually all the state of the object before deletion, and may be undeleted without loss of information. Deleted-objects exist only when the Recycle Binoptional feature is enabled.
deleted-object lifetime: The time period that a deleted-object is kept in storage before it is transformed into a recycled-object.
delivery receipt: A report message that is generated and sent by a client or server to the sender of a message or another designated recipient when an email message is received by an intended recipient.
delivery status notification (DSN): (1) A message that reports the result of an attempt to deliver a message to one or more recipients, as described in [RFC3464].
(2) A DSN is an SMTP message that describes the progress of delivery of another SMTP message. The SMTP MTA sends a DSN message to the sender when delivery is delayed or obstructed.
delta: (1) A unit of transactional consistency in a shared space. A delta can contain one or more commands.
(2) One of a set of possible changes that can be made to a database.
Department object: An Address Book object that describes a department within an organization.
departmental group: A distribution list that describes a department within an organization.
device: (1) A client or server computer that uses a device URL to identify itself as an endpoint (5) for synchronizing account data.
(2) Any peripheral or part of a computer system that can send or receive data.
(3) The Devices Profile for Web Services (DPWS) term for a special instance of a service that is discoverable and contains other services with metadata describing those services.
(4) A logical device and/or a container that may embed other logical devices and that embeds one or more services and advertises its presence on network(s). For more information, see [UPNPARCH1.1] sections 1 and 2.
(5) A device can be any UPnP-enabled device.
device space: The output space for graphics transforms. It usually refers to the client area of an application window; however, it can also include the entire desktop, a complete window, or a page of printer or plotter paper. Physical device space dimensions vary according to the dimensions set by the display, printer, or plotter technology.
device URL: A unique identifier for a client device, as described in [RFC3986].
DFS-R: A service that keeps DFS and SYSVOL folders in sync automatically. DFS-R is a state-based, multimaster replication system that supports replication scheduling and bandwidth throttling. This is a rewrite and new version of FRS. For more information, see [MS-FRS2].
DHCP client: The remote procedure call (RPC)clients that use the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Server Management Protocol (DHCPM) to configure, manage, and monitor the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server.
dictionary: A collection of key/value pairs. Each pair consists of a unique key and an associated value. Values in the dictionary are retrieved by providing a key for which the dictionary returns the associated value.
digital certificate: See the "digital certificate definition standard," as described in [X509].
directory: (1) The database that stores information about objects such as users, groups, computers, printers, and the directory service that makes this information available to users and applications.
(2) A forest.
(3) An Active Directoryobject, which is a specialization of the "object" concept that is described in [MS-ADTS] section 1 or [MS-DRSR] section 1, Introduction, under Pervasive Concepts. An Active Directoryobject can be identified by the objectGUID attribute of a dsname according to the matching rules defined in [MS-DRSR] section 5.50, DSNAME. The parent-identifying attribute (not exposed as an LDAPattribute) is parent. Active Directoryobjects are similar to LDAPentries, as defined in [RFC2251]; the differences are specified in [MS-ADTS] section 18.104.22.168.1.
directory partition: A synonym for Active Directory partition and naming context (NC) replica.
directory service (DS): (1) A service that stores and organizes information about a computer network's users and network shares, and that allows network administrators to manage users' access to the shares. See also Active Directory.
(2) An entity that maintains a collection of objects. These objects can be remotely manipulated either by the Message Queuing (MSMQ): Directory Service Protocol, as specified in [MS-MQDS], or by the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (v3), as specified in [RFC2251].
(3) A distributed data storage system that allows computers connected to a network to store, edit, and retrieve information.
DirectPlay: A network communication library included with the Microsoft DirectX application programming interfaces. DirectPlay is a high-level software interface between applications and communication services that makes it easy to connect games over the Internet, a modem link, or a network.
DirectPlay 4: A programming library that implements the IDirectPlay4 programming interface. DirectPlay 4 provides peer-to-peer session-layer services to applications, including session lifetime management, data management, and media abstraction. DirectPlay 4 first shipped with the DirectX 6 multimedia toolkit. Later versions continued to ship up to, and including, DirectX 9. DirectPlay 4 was subsequently deprecated. The DirectPlay 4 DLL continues to ship in current versions of Windows operating systems, but the development library is no longer shipping in Microsoft development tools and software development kits (SDKs).
DirectPlay 8: A programming library that implements the IDirectPlay8 programming interface. DirectPlay 8 provides peer-to-peer session-layer services to applications, including session lifetime management, data management, and media abstraction. DirectPlay 8 first shipped with the DirectX 8 software development toolkit. Later versions continued to ship up to, and including, DirectX 9. DirectPlay 8 was subsequently deprecated. The DirectPlay 8 DLL continues to ship in current versions of Windows operating systems, but the development library is no longer shipping in Microsoft development tools and Software Development Kits (SDKs).
DirectX: Microsoft DirectX is a collection of application programming interfaces for handling tasks related to multimedia, especially game programming and video, on Microsoft platforms.
DirectX Diagnostic (DXDiag): DXDiag.exe is an application that uses the DirectPlay DXDiag Usage Protocol [MS-DPDX] traffic.
discretionary access control list (DACL): An access control list (ACL) that is controlled by the owner of an object and that specifies the access particular users or groups can have to the object.
disk encapsulation: The process of converting a basic disk to a dynamic disk. Encapsulating a disk lays down disk metadata that is used for managing the disk dynamically.
dismiss: A process that disables an overdue reminder. After a reminder is dismissed, it is not considered overdue anymore and is not signaled or displayed to a user or any agents who are acting on behalf of that user.
display name: A text string that is used to identify a principal or other object in the user interface. Also referred to as title.
display template: A template that describes how to display or allow a user to modify information about an Address Book object.
Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER): A method for encoding a data object based on Basic Encoding Rules (BER) encoding but with additional constraints. DER is used to encode X.509 certificates (2) that need to be digitally signed or to have their signatures verified.
distinguished name (DN): (1) A name that uniquely identifies an object by using the relative distinguished name (RDN) for the object, and the names of container objects and domains that contain the object. The distinguished name (DN) identifies the object and its location in a tree.
(3) In X.500, the globally unique name string that identifies an entity in an X.500 directory, as described in [X500]. The DN consists of several components and is used in X.509 certificates (2) to identify the subject and issuer principals, as described in [X509].
(4) In Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), an LDAP Distinguished Name, as described in [RFC2251] section 4.1.3. The DN of an object is the DN of its parent, preceded by the RDN of the object. For example: CN=David Thompson, OU=Users, DC=Microsoft, DC=COM. For definitions of CN and OU, see [RFC2256] sections 5.4 and 5.12, respectively.
(5) A name that uniquely identifies an object by using the relative distinguished name (RDN) for the object, plus the names of container objects and domains that contain the object. The DN identifies the object as well as its location in a tree.
(7) In X.500, the globally unique name string that identifies an entity in an X.500 directory, as specified in [X500]. The DN consists of several components and is used in X.509 certificates to identify the subject and issuer principals, as specified in [X509].
(8) In Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), an LDAPDN, as specified in [RFC2251] section 4.1.3. The DN of an object is the DN of its parent, preceded by the RDN of the object. For example: CN=David Thompson,OU=Users,DC=Microsoft,DC=COM. For definitions of CN and OU, see [RFC2256] sections 5.4 and 5.12, respectively.
Distributed Component Object Model (DCOM): The Microsoft Component Object Model (COM) specification that defines how components communicate over networks, as specified in [MS-DCOM].
Distributed File System (DFS): A file system that logically groups physical shared folders located on different servers by transparently connecting them to one or more hierarchical namespaces. DFS also provides fault-tolerance and load-sharing capabilities. DFS refers to the Microsoft DFS available in Windows Server platforms.
Distributed File System Replication (DFS-R): A service that keeps DFS folders in sync automatically. DFS-R is a state-based, multi-master replication system that supports replication scheduling and bandwidth throttling. This is a rewrite and new version of the File Replication Service (FRS). For more information, see [MS-FRS2].
Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF): An industry organization that develops management standards and integration technology for enterprise and Internet environments.
distribution list: (1) A collection of users, computers, contacts, or other groups that is used only for email distribution, and addressed as a single recipient.
(2) An Active Directory object that can contain explicit references only to destinations published in Active Directory; that is, to public queues, queue aliases, and other distribution lists, but not to private and URL-named queues.
Distribution List object: A Message object that contains properties that describe a distribution list.
Document object: A Message object that represents a single file, such as a document generated by a word-processing application. The Message object contains the file as an Attachment object and includes additional properties to describe the file.
domain: (1) A set of users and computers sharing a common namespace and management infrastructure. At least one computer member of the set must act as a domain controller (DC) and host a member list that identifies all members of the domain, as well as optionally hosting the Active Directory service. The domain controller provides authentication (2) of members, creating a unit of trust for its members. Each domain has an identifier that is shared among its members.
(2) A set of users and computers sharing a common namespace and management infrastructure. At least one computer member of the set must act as a domain controller and host a member list that identifies all members of the domain, as well as optionally hosting the Active Directory service. The domain controller provides authentication of members, creating a unit of trust for its members. Each domain has an identifier that is shared among its members. For more information, see [MS-AUTHSOD] section 22.214.171.124 and [MS-ADTS].
(3) A capture of the data semantics. Example domains include email address, gender, and state.
domain client in a workstation role: A domain member that offers other services to other domain clients.
domain controller (DC): The service, running on a server, that implements Active Directory, or the server hosting this service. The service hosts the data store for objects and interoperates with other DCs to ensure that a local change to an object replicates correctly across all DCs. When Active Directory is operating as Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS), the DC contains full NC replicas of the configuration naming context (config NC), schema naming context (schema NC), and one of the domain NCs in its forest. If the AD DSDC is a global catalog server (GC server), it contains partial NC replicas of the remaining domain NCs in its forest. For more information, see [MS-AUTHSOD] section 126.96.36.199.2. When Active Directory is operating as Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS), several AD LDSDCs can run on one server. When Active Directory is operating as AD DS, only one AD DSDC can run on one server. However, several AD LDSDCs can coexist with one AD DSDC on one server. The AD LDSDC contains full NC replicas of the config NC and the schema NC in its forest.
domain controller server: A domain member, which can be a client or a server that offers other services to its clients. When the domain client acts as a supplicant to another domain client, the supplicant is referred to as a domain client in a workstation role and the latter as a domain client in a server role.
domain name: (1) The name given by an administrator to a collection of networked computers that share a common directory. Part of the domain naming service naming structure, domain names consist of a sequence of name labels separated by periods.
(2) A name with a structure indicated by dots.
(3) A domain name (2) used by the Domain Name System (DNS).
(4) A domain name (3) or a NetBIOS name that identifies a domain.
Domain Name System (DNS): A hierarchical, distributed database that contains mappings of domain names (1) to various types of data, such as IP addresses. DNS enables the location of computers and services by user-friendly names, and it also enables the discovery of other information stored in the database.
domain naming context (domain NC): (1) A partition of the directory that contains information about the domain and is replicated with other domain controllers (DCs) in the same domain.
(2) A naming context (NC) whose replicas are able to contain security principal objects. No other NC replica can contain security principal objects. The distinguished name (DN) of a domain NC takes the form “dc=n1,dc=n2, ... dc=nk” where each ni satisfies the syntactic requirements of a DNS name component. For more information, see [RFC1034]. Such a DN corresponds to the domain naming service name: “n1.n2. ... .nk”. This is the domain naming service name of the domain NC. Domain NCs appear in the global catalog (GC). A forest has one or more domain NCs. The root of a domain NC is an object of class domainDns.
(3) A specific type of naming context (NC) that represents a domain. A domain NC can contain security principal objects; no other type of NC can contain security principal objects. Domain NCs appear in the global catalog (GC). A domain NC is hosted by one or more domain controllers (DCs) operating as AD DS. In AD DS, a forest has one or more domain NCs. The root of a domain NC is an object of class domainDNS; for directory replication [MS-DRSR], see domainDNS. A domain NC cannot exist in AD LDS.
domainDNS: A specific object class. The root of a domain NC or an application NC is an object of class domainDNS. The DN of such an object takes the form dc=n1,dc=n2, ... dc=nk, where each ni satisfies the syntactic requirements of a fully qualified domain name (FQDN) component (for more information, see [RFC1034]). Such a DN corresponds to the FQDN n1.n2. ... .nk. This is the FQDN of the NC, and it allows replicas of the NC to be located by using DNS.
double-byte character set (DBCS): A character set (1) that can use more than one byte to represent a single character. A DBCS includes some characters that consist of 1 byte and some characters that consist of 2 bytes. Languages such as Chinese, Japanese, and Korean use DBCS.
Draft Message object: A Message object that has not been sent.
drive: (1) See volume.
dsname: (1) A tuple that contains between one and three identifiers for an object. The term dsname does not stand for anything. The possible identifiers are the object's GUID (attribute objectGuid), security identifier (SID) (attribute objectSid), and distinguished name (DN) (attribute distinguishedName). A dsname can appear in a protocol message and as an attribute value (for example, a value of an attribute with syntax Object(DS-DN)). Given a DSName, an object can be identified within a set of NC replicas according to the matching rules defined in [MS-DRSR] section 5.49.
(2) A dsname is a field 3-tuple<guid: GUID, sid: security identifier (SID), dn: distinguished name (DN)>. A dsname can appear in a protocol message and as a value of an attribute. In either context, it identifies an object. If all three fields are null, the dsname is null. As a value of an attribute, a dsname always contains a non-null GUID and DN, and sometimes contains a non-null SID. Such a dsname n refers to the unique object o such that o.objectGuid = n.guid. The SID and DN are not used for identification in this case. As a value within a protocol message, a non-null dsname n refers to: if n.guid ≠ null, the unique object o such that o.objectGuid = n.guid (failing if no such object); otherwise if n.dn ≠ null, the unique object o such that o.distinguishedName = n.dn (failing if no such object); otherwise the unique object o such that o.objectSid = n.sid. Note that the SID is used only if no other part of the dsname is specified. If o is an object, the function dsname(o) equals [o.objectGuid, o.objectSid, o.distinguishedName].
dynamic disk: A disk on which volumes may be composed of more than one partition on disks of the same pack, as opposed to basic disks where a partition and a volume are equivalent.
dynamic endpoint: A network-specific server address that is requested and assigned at run time. For more information, see [C706].
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) client: An Internet host using DHCP to obtain configuration parameters such as network addresses.
dynamic object: An object with a time-to-die (attribute msDS-Entry-Time-To-Die). The directory service garbage-collects a dynamic object immediately after its time-to-die has passed. The constructed attribute entryTTL gives a dynamic object's current time-to-live, that is, the difference between the current time and msDS-Entry-Time-To-Die. For more information, see [RFC2589].
dynamic property: A designation for an instance of an OpenEntityType that includes additional nullable properties (of a scalar type or ComplexType) beyond its declared properties. The set of additional properties, and the type of each, may vary between instances of the same OpenEntityType. Such additional properties are referred to as dynamic properties and do not have a representation in a CSDL document.
dynamic web template: An HTML-based master copy of a page that contains settings, formatting, and elements such as text, graphics, page layout, styles, and regions of a page that can be modified. Dynamic web templates have a .dwt file name extension.