identifier: A string value that is used to uniquely identify a component of the CSDL and that is of type SimpleIdentifier.
identity provider/security token service (IP/STS): An STS that may or may not be an identity provider (IP). This term is used as shorthand to see both identity that verifies token services and general token services that do not verify identity. Note that the "/" symbol implies an "or" relationship.
IDL: See Interface Definition Language (IDL).
Incremental Change Synchronization (ICS): A data format and algorithm that is used to synchronize folders and messages between two sources.
indexing: The process of extracting text and properties from files and storing the extracted values into the indexes (for text) and the property cache (for properties).
indexing service: (1) A service that traverses URL spaces and file systems to acquire items, including properties, to record in catalogs for those spaces and systems. The catalogs can then be used for tasks such as searching and auditing content.
Information Rights Management (IRM): A technology that provides persistent protection to digital data by using encryption, certificates (1), and authentication (2). Authorized recipients or users acquire a license to gain access to the protected files according to the rights or business rules that are set by the content owner.
informational update: A Meeting Update object that includes a change that does not require attendees to respond again, such as additional agenda details.
initial ICS state: An Incremental Change Synchronization (ICS) state that is provided by a client when it configures an ICS operation.
instance: (1) A unique publication of data for a category (4). It enables a publisher to publish data for the same category multiple times. An example is a publisher who uses two different endpoints (5) to publish data. These endpoints can publish the same category. However, each endpoint requires a different instance number to be considered a distinct publication by the server (2). An instance number is provided by the publishing client.
(2) A specific occurrence of a game running in a game session. A game application process or module may be created more than one time on a single computer system, or on separate computer systems. Each time a game application process or module is created, the occurrence is considered to be a separate instance.
instant messaging: A method of real-time communication over the Internet in which a sender types a message to one or more recipients and the recipient immediately receives the message in a pop-up window.
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN): A high-speed digital technology that uses existing telephone lines to provide Internet access and digital network services.
(2) A group of related function prototypes in a specific order, analogous to a C++ virtual interface. Multiple objects, of different object class, may implement the same interface. A derived interface may be created by adding methods after the end of an existing interface. In the Distributed Component Object Model (DCOM), all interfaces initially derive from IUnknown.
(3) This term is used exactly as specified in [C706] section "Introduction to the RPC API" in Part 2.
(4) A collection of messages used together. Interfaces support inheritance and extensibility through the Interface Query message as defined in [MS-RDPEXPS] section 18.104.22.168.1.
(5) Represents a network that can be reached over an adapter. Each interface has a unique interface identifier also known as an interface index. interfaces that are active have an adapter that is providing connectivity to the network they represent. interfaces that are inactive do not have an adapter providing connectivity unless an administrator disabled the interface after it already had an adapter. Routing a packet to a network represented by an interface will cause the router to allocate an adapter for that interface, and will establish a wide area network (WAN) connection to the remote network. Allocating an adapter to an interface is referred to as binding. In the case of a local area network (LAN) interface, the interface corresponds to an actual physical device in the computer, a LAN adapter. In the case of a WAN interface, the interface is mapped to a port at the time that a connection is established. The port could be a COM port, a parallel port, or a virtual port (for tunnels such as PPTP[RFC2637] and L2TP[RFC2661]). WAN interfaces have the additional quality that they typically receive a network address only at the time that a connection is established. For example, a WAN interface using PPP [RFC1661] receives its network layer address from the remote peer during the connection process. Receiving a network address as part of the connection process is sometimes referred to as late-binding.
Interface Definition Language (IDL): The International Standards Organization (ISO) standard language for specifying the interface for remote procedure calls. For more information, see [C706] section 4.
internal identifier: (1) An integer that uniquely identifies any item in a term store.
(2) A Folder ID or Message ID, as described in [MS-OXCDATA].
Internationalized Resource Identifier (IRI): A resource identifier that conforms to the rules for Internationalized Resource Identifiers, as defined in [RFC3987].
Internet Key Exchange (IKE): The protocol that is used to negotiate and provide authenticated keying material for security associations (SAs) in a protected manner. For more information, see [RFC2409].
Internet message: A message, such as an email message, that conforms to the syntax that is described in [RFC2822].
Internet Message Access Protocol - Version 4 (IMAP4): A protocol that is used for accessing email and news items from mail servers, as described in [RFC3501].
Internet Protocol security (IPsec): A framework of open standards for ensuring private, secure communications over Internet Protocol (IP) networks through the use of cryptographic security services. IPsec supports network-level peer authentication, data origin authentication, data integrity, data confidentiality (encryption), and replay protection. The Microsoft implementation of IPsec is based on standards developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) IPsec working group.
Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6): A revised version of the Internet Protocol (IP) designed to address growth on the Internet. Improvements include a 128-bit IP address size, expanded routing capabilities, and support for authentication (2) and privacy.
Inter-Personal Mail (IPM): Typical user messaging items, such as email and calendar items.
interpersonal messaging subtree: The root of the hierarchy of folders commonly visible in a messaging client. This includes mailbox folders (such as the Inbox folder and Outbox folder) and user-created folders, including user-created public folders.
INVITE: A Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) method that is used to invite a user or a service to participate in a session.
item: A unit of content that can be indexed and searched by a search application.