18 P

Packed Encoding Rules (PER): A set of encoding rules for ASN.1 notation, specified in [ITUX691]. These rules enable the identification, extraction, and decoding of data structures.

padding: Bytes that are inserted in a data stream to maintain alignment of the protocol requests on natural boundaries.

page: (1) A file that consists of HTML and can include references to graphics, scripts, or dynamic content such as Web Parts.

(2) Represents the layout settings for page-oriented report rendering formats.

parent: A data item within the MDS system that can contain childmembers.

parent distinguished name (PDN): A distinguished name (DN) (1) of an object that is the next immediate object closer to the root of a tree of relative distinguished names (RDNs) (1).

participant: (1) An actor in an activity flow. A participant can be either an initiator or a target.

(2) A user who is participating in a conference or peer-to-peer call, or the object that is used to represent that user.

(3) Any of the parties that are involved in an atomic transaction and that have a stake in the operations that are performed under the transaction or in the outcome of the transaction ([WSAT10], [WSAT11]).

(4) A user who is participating in a conference or peer-to-peer call. May also be used in reference to the object that is used to represent this participant on the implementation.

(5) A machine that is accessing the desktop content shared by the host.

partition: (1) An area within a shared services database, such as an area that isolates different tenants within a service, or the process of creating such an area in a shared services database.

(2) A storage block that contains the content in binary files or metadata about file content.

(3) In the context of hard disks, a logical region of a hard disk. A hard disk may be subdivided into one or more partitions.

(4) In the context of directory services, a synonym for directory partition and naming context (NC) replica.

(5) A container for a specific configuration of a COM+ object class.

(6) A container for conglomerations. Every COMA server has at least one partition--the Global Partition--and may have additional partitions. A partition is identified by a partition identifier.

(7) One of the storage containers for data and aggregations of a cube. Every cube contains one or more partitions. For a cube with multiple partitions, each partition can be stored separately in a different physical location. Each partition can be based on a different data source. Partitions are not visible to users; the cube appears to be a single object.

partition identifier: A GUID that identifies a partition (1).

partner: (1) A computer connected to a local computer through either inbound or outbound connections.

(2) A participant in the MSDTC Connection Manager: OleTx Transports Protocol. Each partner has its own contact identifier (CID), and uses the IXnRemote interface to invoke and receive remote procedure calls (RPCs). The IXnRemote interface is described within the full Interface Definition Language (IDL) for [MS-CMPO] in section 6.

(3) A computer that is participating in DFS-R file replication.

(4) In the context of [MS-PASS], an organization in a business relationship with the Authentication Service (AS). A partner needs to be able to access the token issued by the AS. Typically, a partner site is the actual service or site a consumer visits and, in the process, is authenticated by the AS. Examples of partners are the MSN Money and MSN Messenger sites.

peer: (1) An additional endpoint (5) that is associated with an endpoint in a session. An example of a peer is the callee endpoint for a caller endpoint.

(2) The entity being authenticated by the authenticator.

(3) In DirectPlay, a player within a DirectPlay game session that has an established connection with every other peer in the game session, and which is not performing game session management duties. The participant that is managing the game session is called the host.

(4) An instance of the Retrieval Protocol for the Peer Content Caching and Retrieval Framework running on a host. A peer can be both a client and a server in the Retrieval Protocol operations.

(5) A node participating in the content caching and retrieval system. A peer is a node that both accesses the content and serves the content it caches for other peers.

(6) The entity on either end of an established SMP session.

(7) A single device or node in a peer-to-peer networking system.

(8) When used in context with the IETF standard Layering 2 Tunnel Protocol (L2TP), as specified in [MS-L2TPIE], peer refers to either the LAC or LNS. LNS is a peer to LAC and vice versa.

(9) When used in context with [MS-PTPT], peer refers to either the PAC or PNS. A PAC's peer is a PNS and vice versa.

peer name: A string composed of an authority and a classifier. This is the string used by applications to resolve to a list of endpoints and/or an extended payload. A peer name is not required to be unique. For example, several nodes that provide the same service may register the same Peer Name.

peer-to-peer: A server-less networking technology that allows several participating network devices to share resources and communicate directly with each other.

Permanent Entry ID: A property of an Address Book object that can be used to uniquely identify the object.

permission: A rule that is associated with an object and that regulates which users can gain access to the object and in what manner. See also rights.

permissions list: A list of users and the permissions for each of those users.

permissions table: A Table object whose rows represent entries in a permissions list for a Folder object.

Personal Distribution List object: A Message object that contains properties pertaining specifically to user-created distribution lists.

Personal Information Manager (PIM): A category of software packages for managing commonly used types of personal information, including contacts, email messages, calendar appointments, and meetings.

phishing: The luring of sensitive information, such as passwords or other personal information, from a recipient by masquerading as someone who is trustworthy and has a real need for such information.

phishing message: An email message that is designed to trick a recipient into divulging sensitive information, such as passwords or other personal information, to a non-trustworthy source.

Physical Media: The tangible media that are inserted into and removed from libraries and mounted in drives.

pipeline: An ordered collection of commands, with the output of one command passed as input to the next.

plain text: Text that does not have markup. See also plain text message body.

plain text message body: A message body (2) for which the Content-Type value of the Email Text Body header field is "text/plain". A plain text message body can be identified explicitly in the content, or implicitly if it is in a message that is as described in [RFC822] or a message that does not contain a Content-Type header field.

player: A person who is playing a computer game. There may be multiple players on a computer participating in any given game session. See also name table.

playlist: One or more content items that are streamed sequentially.

point: A unit of measurement for fonts and spacing. A point is equal to 1/72 of an inch.

policy: (1) A set of rules that governs all interactions with an object such as a document or item.

(2) The set of rules that govern the interaction between a subject and an object or resource.

(3) A collection of settings that contains global settings, profile settings, firewall rules, and connection security rules. Together these settings specify how the host firewall and Internet Protocol security (IPsec) behave on the client computer.

(4) The description of actions permitted for a specified set of content, and restrictions placed on those actions. Restrictions are described in the license associated with the content.

(5) A set of conditions and actions. The conditions provide a mechanism for classifying DHCP Clients. Classification is based on the conditions and expressions configured by the user as part of the policy. DHCP Client requests received by the server are evaluated as per the classification specified in the policy. The actions can have an associated IP address range and/or option values. If a DHCP Client request matches policy conditions, the client is given an IP address from the IP address range of the policy. The client will also be given options configured for the matched policy. A policy can be configured at the scope or server level. Multiple policies can be configured at both the scope and server levels.

policy application: The protocol exchange by which a client obtains all of the Group Policy Object (GPO) and thus all applicable Group Policy settings for a particular policy target from the server, as specified in [MS-GPOL]. Policy application can operate in two modes, user policy and computer policy.

POP3 response: A message sent by a POP3 server in response to a message from a POP3 client. The structure of this message, as specified in [RFC1939], is as follows: <+OK> <response text><CR><LF> or <-ERR> <response text><CR><LF>.

port: (1) A TCP/IP numbered connection point that is used to transfer data.

(2) A logical name that represents a connection to a device. A port can represent a network address (for example, a TCP/IP address) or a local connection (for example, a USBport).

(3) A subcomponent of the naming authority in a URIscheme ([RFC3986] section 3.2.3).

(4) The abstraction that transport protocols use to distinguish among multiple destinations within a given host computer. TCP/IP protocols identify ports by using small positive integers. The transport selectors (TSEL) used by the OSI transport layer are equivalent to ports. RTP depends upon the lower-layer protocol to provide some mechanism such as ports to multiplex the RTP and RTCP packets of a session. For more information, see [RFC3550] section 3.

(5) A place to add or remove physical media from a library.

(6) The logical endpoint of a remote access connection on the client or server.

Portable Network Graphics (PNG): A bitmap graphics file format that uses lossless data compression and supports variable transparency of images (alpha channels) and control of image brightness on different computers (gamma correction). PNG-format files have a .png file name extension.

Post object: A Message object that represents an entry in a discussion thread stored in a messaging store.

Post Office Protocol - Version 3 (POP3): A protocol that is used for accessing email from mail servers, as described in [RFC1939].

postmark: A computational proof that is applied to outgoing messages to help recipient messaging systems distinguish legitimate email messages from junk email messages, which reduces the chance of false positives.

PPTP: Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) Profile, as defined in [MS-PTPT].

PPTP Access Concentrator (PAC): A node that acts as one side of a PPTP tunnel endpoint and is a peer to the PPTP Network Server (PNS). PAC refers to the server that terminates the PPTP tunnel and provides VPN connectivity to a remote client.

PPTP Network Server (PNS): A node that acts as one side of a PPTP tunnel endpoint and is a peer to the PPTP Access Concentrator (PAC). PNS refers to the remote client that requests to establish a VPN connectivity using PPTP tunnel.

Predecessor Change List (PCL): A set of change numbers that specify the latest versions of a messaging object in all replicas that were integrated into the current version. It is used for conflict detection.

presence: (1) A status indicator on a client device that is transmitted by using the Wide Area Network Device Presence Protocol (WAN DPP).

(2) A setting for the User field that determines whether instant-messaging status information appears with user names in that field.

presentation: (1) A collection of slides that are intended to be viewed by an audience.

(2) A set of audio and video data streams and related metadata that are synchronized for playback on a client.

presolution header: A string that contains the prepended solutions for the puzzle.

Pre-Solver: A component that, given specific inputs, generates a message postmark.

primary calendar: The calendar that contains free/busy information for a specific user or resource. It enables a user or resource to schedule their appointments and other types of events, and the Calendar objects within it are used to process and respond to meeting requests.

primary flag storage location: The typical location that is used to store flagging properties, as opposed to the secondary flag storage location.

primary recipient: A person for whom a message is directly intended.

primary SMTP proxy address: The Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) email address that is used to designate a message server user in all SMTP traffic. Proxy addresses are stored in a user’s address book entry, in the PidTagAddressBookProxyAddresses multivalued string property. The primary SMTP proxy address can be identified by its address type field, which is set to "SMTP" (uppercase). Non-primary SMTP proxy addresses have the address type field set to "smtp" (lowercase).

principal: (1) An authenticated entity that initiates a message or channel in a distributed system.

(2) An identifier of such an entity.

(3) In Kerberos, a Kerberos principal.

(4) An authenticated entity that initiates a message or channel in a distributed system.

(5) An ID of such an entity.

(6) In Kerberos, a Kerberos principal.

(7) A unique entity identifiable by a security identifier (SID) that is typically the requester of access to securable objects or resources. It often corresponds to a human user but can also be a computer or service. It is sometimes referred to as a security principal.

(8) A unique, individual account known to the KDC. Often a user, but it can be a service offering a resource on the network.

print client: The application or user that is trying to apply an operation on the print system either by printing a job or by managing the data structures or devices maintained by the print system.

print server: A machine that hosts the print system and all its different components.

private key: One of a pair of keys used in public-key cryptography. The private key is kept secret and is used to decrypt data that has been encrypted with the corresponding public key. For an introduction to this concept, see [CRYPTO] section 1.8 and [IEEE1363] section 3.1.

privilege attribute certificate (PAC): A Microsoft-specific authorization data present in the authorization data field of a ticket. The PAC contains several logical components, including group membership data for authorization, alternate credentials for non-Kerberos authentication protocols, and policy control information for supporting interactive logon.

procedural module: A collection of subroutines and functions.

process matching criteria (PMC): A resource policy object that selects a subset of currently executing processes. Since processes are dynamically created and terminated by the operating system in the course of running workloads, the WSRM Protocol uses PMCs as a means of identifying processes for resource management purposes. PMCs specify partial or full values to be matched against process property fields. Each PMC includes a name and a nonempty set of matching values and can also include a nonempty set of exclusion values. All running processes under management whose path and the associated user name match the values provided in a PMC are selected by that PMC, provided that they are not already selected by another PMC and do not match the exclusion values. Processes selected by a PMC specification at any given time are said to match, or be in, the PMC. A process can be selected by only one PMC at a time. The term resource group" and PMC are used interchangeably.

processor affinity: An element of process matching criteria (PMC), the association between a task or process and a specific processor needed to execute that task. Processor affinity takes advantage of the fact that some remnants of a process might remain in one processor's state (in particular, in its cache) from the last time the process ran, and so scheduling it to run on the same processor the next time could make the process run more efficiently than if it were to run on another processor.

property: (1) A data field within a Common Information Model (CIM) class definition. This consists of a simple name, a type, and a value.

(2) A typed value associated with a property identifier and optionally a property name.

(3) An EntityType or ComplexType can have one or more properties of the specified EDMSimpleType or ComplexType. A property of an EntityType can be a declared property or a dynamic property, as specified in [MC-CSDL]. A property of ComplexType can only be a declared property.

(4) A name/value pair that associates metadata with a resource. This term is used as specified in [RFC4918] section 4.

(5) A name/value pair that describes a unit of data for a class. Property values must have a valid Managed Object Format (MOF) data type.

Property: A typed name/value pair that is associated with a MetadataObject. Properties enable consumers of a protocol client to annotate or decorate the MetadataObject with consumer-specific extensions. A MetadataObject can contain multiple Properties.

property ID: A 16-bit numeric identifier of a specific attribute (1). A property ID does not include any property type information.

property identifier: (1) A unique integer or a 16-bit, numeric identifier that is used to identify a specific attribute (1) or property.

(2) A numerical value that uniquely identifies a property in a property set.

(3) A DWORD value associated with an MSMQ object property that defines the property type and its semantic meaning.

property name: A string that, in combination with a property set, identifies a named property.

property set: (1) A set of attributes (1), identified by a GUID. Granting access to a property set grants access to all the attributes in the set.

(2) A set of attributes, identified by a GUID. Granting access to a property set grants access to all the attributes in the set.

(3) A set of properties, along with an FMTID, identifying the property set format and an associated class identifier (CLSID). The CLSID is used to identify the application or component that created the property set.

property tag: A 32-bit value that contains a property type and a property ID. The low-order 16 bits represent the property type. The high-order 16 bits represent the property ID.

property type: A 16-bit quantity that specifies the data type of a property value.

protected content: (1) Any content or information, such as a file, Internet message, or other object type, to which a rights-management usage policy is assigned and is encrypted according to that policy. See also Information Rights Management (IRM).

(2) Content for which usage is governed by policies specified in a license.

(3) Any media content that has a DRM usage policy assigned to it, and is encrypted according to that policy.

(4) Any content or information (file, email) that has an RMS usage policy assigned to it, and is encrypted according to that policy. Also known as "Protected Information".

protocol stream: A continuous stream of records flowing in one direction.

public folder: A Folder object that is stored in a location that is publicly available.

public key: One of a pair of keys used in public-key cryptography. The public key is distributed freely and published as part of a digital certificate. For an introduction to this concept, see [CRYPTO] section 1.8 and [IEEE1363] section 3.1.

public queue: An application-defined message queue that is registered in the MSMQ Directory Service. A public queue may be deployed at any queue manager.

publisher: (1) A SIP protocol client that is making a publish request.

(2) An application that needs to publish historical data that may be of interest to other applications.

(3) The side of a Remote Assistance connection that registers a Peer Name. It is the same as the novice role.

(4) A set of resources that are contained in the same workspace.

(5) In the context of events: The source of event generation. An application or component that writes to one or more event logs. An application that publishes events.

publishing license: An XrML 1.2 license that defines the usage policy for protected content and contains the content key with which that content is encrypted. The usage policy identifies all authorized users and the actions that they are authorized to take with the content, in addition to any usage conditions. The publishing license tells a server which usage policies apply to a specific piece of content and grants a server the right to issue Use Licenses (Uls) based on that policy. The publishing license is created when content is protected. Also referred to as "Issuance License (IL)."

publishing license (PL): An XrML 1.2 license that defines usage policy for protected content and contains the content key with which that content is encrypted. The usage policy identifies all authorized users and the actions they are authorized to take with the content, along with any conditions on that usage. The publishing license tells the server what usage policies apply to a given piece of content and grants the server the right to issue use licenses (ULs) based on that policy. The PL is created when content is protected. Also known as an Issuance License (IL).

publishing range: The number of months of free/busy calendar data to be published, beginning at the start date of the publishing range, which is defined by the PidTagFreeBusyPublishStart property, and continuing for the number of months defined by the PidTagFreeBusyCountMonths property.

pure MIME message: A MIME representation of an email message that does not contain a Transport Neutral Encapsulation Format (TNEF) body part.