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OAB manifest: A file that contains information about data files in a version 4 OAB and has a fixed, well-known name "oab.xml". By discovering the Web Distribution Point (WDP) URI and downloading the manifest, a client application can receive all the information that is necessary to download any published data file in a specific WDP, as necessary.

OAB web distribution: A distribution mechanism that is specific to offline address book (OAB) version 4 and is used to publish OAB data files and an OAB manifest as a collection of files that a client application can download by using the HTTP/1.1 protocol, as described in [RFC2616].

OAL data sequence number: An integer that is associated with offline address list (OAL) data that represents the generation number of this data. The value of the initial sequence number is "1". Each subsequent data generation process that produces a data set that is not identical to the previous data set is incremented by one.

object: (1) A set of attributes (1), each with its associated values. Two attributes of an object have special significance: an identifying attribute and a parent-identifying attribute. An identifying attribute is a designated single-valued attribute that appears on every object; the value of this attribute identifies the object. For the set of objects in a replica, the values of the identifying attribute are distinct. A parent-identifying attribute is a designated single-valued attribute that appears on every object; the value of this attribute identifies the object's parent. That is, this attribute contains the value of the parent's identifying attribute, or a reserved value identifying no object. For the set of objects in a replica, the values of this parent-identifying attribute define a tree with objects as vertices and child-parent references as directed edges with the child as an edge's tail and the parent as an edge's head. Note that an object is a value, not a variable; a replica is a variable. The process of adding, modifying, or deleting an object in a replica replaces the entire value of the replica with a new value. As the word replica suggests, it is often the case that two replicas contain "the same objects". In this usage, objects in two replicas are considered the same if they have the same value of the identifying attribute and if there is a process in place (replication) to converge the values of the remaining attributes. When the members of a set of replicas are considered to be the same, it is common to say "an object" as shorthand referring to the set of corresponding objects in the replicas.

(2) In Active Directory, an entity consisting of a set of attributes, each attribute with a set of associated values. For more information, see [MS-ADTS].

(3) In COM, a software entity that implements the IUnknown interface and zero or more additional interfaces that may be obtained from each other using the IUnknown interface. A COM object can be exposed to remote clients via the DCOM protocol, in which case it is also a DCOM object.

(4) In the DCOM protocol, a software entity that implements one or more object remote protocol (ORPC) interfaces and which is uniquely identified, within the scope of an object exporter, by an object identifier (OID) (1). For more information, see [MS-DCOM].

(5) A set of attributes, each with its associated values. For more information on objects, see [MS-ADTS] section 1 or [MS-DRSR] section 1.

(6) In Active Directory, an entity consisting of a set of attributes, each attribute with a set of associated values. For more information, see [MS-ADTS]. See also directory object.

(7) In COM, a software entity that implements the IUnknown interface and zero or more additional interfaces that may be obtained from each other using the IUnknown interface. A COMobject can be exposed to remote clients via the DCOM protocol, in which case it is also a DCOMobject (4).

(8) In the DCOM protocol, a software entity that implements one or more object remote protocol (ORPC) interfaces and which is uniquely identified, within the scope of an object exporter, by an object identifier (OID) (1). For more information, see [MS-DCOM].

(9) In COM, an instance of an object class. Each object implements one or more interfaces that may be obtained from each other by using the IUnknown interface.

(10) The root of the type hierarchy. For more information, see [ECMA-335].

(11) A file, email, email attachment, contact, calendar appointment or any other self-contained item that can be indexed and searched for by the GSS.

object class: (1) A predicate defined on objects (1) that constrains their attributes (1). Also an identifier for such a predicate.

(2) A set of restrictions on the construction and update of objects. An object class can specify a set of must-have attributes (every object of the class must have at least one value of each) and may-have attributes (every object of the class may have a value of each). An object class can also specify the allowable classes for the parent object of an object in the class. An object class can be defined by single-inheritance; an object whose class is defined in this way is a member of all object classes used to derive its most specific class. An object class is defined in a classSchema object.

(3) In COM, a category of objects (3) identified by a CLSID, members of which can be obtained through activation of the CLSID.

(4) In the DCOM protocol, a category of objects (4) identified by a CLSID, members of which can be obtained through activation of the CLSID. An object class is typically associated with a common set of interfaces that are implemented by all objects in the object class.

(5) A predicate defined on objects that constrains their attributes. Also an identifier for such a predicate.

(6) A set of restrictions on the construction and update of objects. An object class can specify a set of must-have attributes (every object of the class must have at least one value of each) and may-have attributes (every object of the class may have a value of each). An object class can also specify the allowable classes for the parent object of an object in the class. An object class can be defined by single inheritance; an object whose class is defined in this way is a member of all object classes used to derive its most specific class. An object class is defined in a classSchema object. See section 1 of [MS-ADTS] and section 1 of [MS-DRSR].

(7) In COM, a category of objects (3) identified by a CLSID, members of which can be obtained through activation of the CLSID.

(8) In the DCOM protocol, a category of objects (4) identified by a CLSID, members of which can be obtained through activation of the CLSID. An object class is typically associated with a common set of interfaces that are implemented by all objects in the object class.

object exporter: An object container (for example, process, machine, thread) in an object server. Object exporters are callable using RPC interfaces, and they are responsible for dispatching calls to the objects they contain.

object identifier (OID): (1) In the context of an object server, a 64-bit number that uniquely identifies an object.

(2) In the context of a directory service, a number identifying an object class or attribute (2). Object identifiers are issued by the ITU and form a hierarchy. An OID is represented as a dotted decimal string (for example, "1.2.3.4"). For more information on OIDs, see [X660] and [RFC3280] Appendix A. OIDs are used to uniquely identify certificate templates available to the certification authority (CA) (1). Within a certificate (1), OIDs are used to identify standard extensions, as described in [RFC3280] section 4.2.1.x, as well as non-standard extensions.

(3) In the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), a sequence of numbers in a format described by [RFC1778]. In many LDAP directory implementations, an OID is the standard internal representation of an attribute. In the directory model used in this specification, the more familiar ldapDisplayName represents an attribute.

(4) In the context of ASN.1, an object identifier, as described in [ITUX680].

(5) A variable-length identifier from a namespace administered by the ITU. Objects, protocols, and so on that make use of ASN.1 or Basic Encoding Rules (BER), Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER), or Canonical Encoding Rules (CER) encoding format leverage identities from the ITU. For more information, see [ITUX680].

(6) In the context of a directory service, a number identifying an object class or attribute. Object identifiers are issued by the ITU and form a hierarchy. An OID is represented as a dotted decimal string (for example, "1.2.3.4"). For more information on OIDs, see [X660] and Appendix A of [RFC3280]. OIDs are used to uniquely identify certificate templates available to the certificate authority (CA). Within a certificate, OIDs are used to identify standard extensions as covered in [RFC3280] section 4.2.1.x, as well as non-standard extensions.

(7) In the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), a sequence of numbers in a format specified by [RFC1778]. In many LDAP directory implementations, an OID is the standard internal representation of an attribute. In the directory model used in [MS-ADTS], the more familiar ldapDisplayName represents an attribute.

(8) In the context of Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1), an object identifier, as specified in [ITUX680].

(9) A variable-length identifier from a namespace administered by the ITU. Objects, protocols, and so on that make use of ASN.1 or Basic Encoding Rules (BER), Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER), or Canonical Encoding Rules (CER) encoding format leverage identities from the ITU. For more information, see [ITUX680].

Object Linking and Embedding (OLE): A technology for transferring and sharing information between applications by inserting a file or part of a file into a compound document. The inserted file can be either embedded or linked. See also embedded object and linked object.

object of class x (or x object): An object o such that one of the values of its objectClass attributes is x. For instance, if objectClass contains the value user, o is an object of class user. This is often contracted to "user object".

object reference: (1) An attribute value that references an object. Reading a reference gives the distinguished name (DN) of the object.

(2) In the DCOM protocol, a reference to an object (4), represented on the wire as an OBJREF. An object reference enables the object to be reached by entities outside the object'sobject exporter.

(3) An attribute value that references an object; reading a reference gives the distinguished name (DN) or full dsname of the object.

OBJREF: The marshaled form of an object reference.

offline: (1) The condition of not being connected to or not being on a network or the Internet. Offline can also refer to a device, such as a printer that is not connected to a computer, and files that are stored on a computer that is not connected to or not on a network or the Internet.

(2) An operational state applicable to volumes and disks. In the offline state, the volume or disk is unavailable for data input/output (I/O) or configuration.

offline address book (OAB): A collection of address lists that are stored in a format that a client can save and use locally.

offline address book (OAB) data file: A file that contains offline address book (OAB) version 4–specific data, as described in [MS-OXOAB].

offline address list (OAL): A portion of data that is in an offline address book (OAB) and is related to a single address list.

OleTx: A comprehensive distributed transaction manager processing protocol that uses the protocols specified in the following document(s): [MS-CMPO], [MS-CMP], [MS-DTCLU], [MS-DTCM], [MS-DTCO], [MC-DTCXA], [MS-TIPP], and [MS-CMOM].

one-off EntryID: A special address object EntryID that encapsulates electronic address information, as described in [MS-OXCDATA].

One-Way Method: A Remote Method that has no application response sent from the implementation of the Remote Method back to the caller. This pattern is sometimes referred to as "fire and forget".

OOF message: A message that is sent in response to incoming messages and indicates that the user is currently Out of Office (OOF).

opaque-signed message: An Internet email message that is in the format described by [RFC5751] and uses the SignedData CMS content type described in [RFC3852], or the Message object that represents such a message.

opnum: An operation number or numeric identifier that is used to identify a specific remote procedure call (RPC) method or a method in an interface. For more information, see [C706] section 12.5.2.12 or [MS-RPCE].

optional attendee: An attendee of an event whom the organizer lists as an optional participant.

optional feature: A non-default behavior that modifies the Active Directory state model. An optional feature is enabled or disabled in a specific scope, such as a forest or a domain. For more information, refer to [MS-ADTS] section 3.1.1.9.

Organization object: An Address Book object that describes an entire organization.

organizer: The owner or creator of a conference or event.

originating update: An update that is performed to an NC replica via any protocol except replication. An originating update to an attribute or link value generates a new stamp for the attribute or link value.

orphan instance: An instance of an event that is in a recurring series and is in a Calendar folder without the recurring series. For all practical purposes, this is a single instance.

Out of Office (OOF): One of the possible values for the free/busy status on an appointment. It indicates that the user will not be in the office during the appointment.

Out of Office rule: A rule that is only evaluated when the mailbox is in an Out of Office state.

Outbox folder: A special folder that contains Message objects that are submitted to be sent.

outcome: One of the three possible results (Commit, Abort, In Doubt) reachable at the end of a life cycle for an atomic transaction.

outstanding RPC call: An asynchronous remote procedure call (RPC) that has not been completed by a server yet.

overdue reminder: An active reminder whose signal time has passed.

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