1.1 Glossary

This document uses the following terms:

address book: A collection of Address Book objects, each of which are contained in any number of address lists.

Address Book object: An entity in an address book that contains a set of attributes, each attribute with a set of associated values.

ambiguous name resolution (ANR): A search algorithm that permits a client to search multiple naming-related attributes (2) on objects by way of a single clause of the form "(anr=value)" in a Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) search filter. This permits a client to query for an object when the client possesses some identifying material related to the object but does not know which attribute of the object contains that identifying material.

Appointment object: A Calendar object that has an organizer but no attendees.

Attachment object: A set of properties that represents a file, Message object, or structured storage that is attached to a Message object and is visible through the attachments table for a Message object.

Autodiscover client: A client that queries for a set of server locations where setup and configuration information for an [RFC2821]-compliant email address is stored.

Autodiscover server: A server in a managed environment that makes setup and configuration information available to Autodiscover clients. The location of Autodiscover servers is made available via the Autodiscover HTTP Service Protocol, as described in [MS-OXDISCO].

base64 encoding: A binary-to-text encoding scheme whereby an arbitrary sequence of bytes is converted to a sequence of printable ASCII characters, as described in [RFC4648].

Calendar folder: A Folder object that contains Calendar objects.

Calendar object: A Message object that represents an event, which can be a one-time event or a recurring event. The Calendar object includes properties that specify event details such as description, organizer, date and time, and status.

class: User-defined binary data that is associated with a key.

contact: (1) An object of the contact class that represents a company or person whom a user can contact. 

(2) A person, company, or other entity that is stored in a directory and is associated with one or more unique identifiers and attributes (2), such as an Internet message address or login name.

contents table: A Table object whose rows represent the Message objects that are contained in a Folder object.

delegate: A user or resource that has permissions to act on behalf of another user or resource.

delegate access: The access that is granted by a delegator to a delegate and is used by the delegate to access the delegator's account.

delegator: A user or resource for which another user or resource has permission to act on its behalf.

directory service (DS): A service that stores and organizes information about a computer network's users and network shares, and that allows network administrators to manage users' access to the shares. See also Active Directory.

distinguished name (DN): In the Active Directory directory service, the unique identifier of an object in Active Directory, as described in [MS-ADTS] and [RFC2251].

Domain Name System (DNS): A hierarchical, distributed database that contains mappings of domain names (1) to various types of data, such as IP addresses. DNS enables the location of computers and services by user-friendly names, and it also enables the discovery of other information stored in the database.

Drafts folder: A special folder that is the default location for Message objects that have been saved but not sent.

event: Any significant occurrence in a system or an application that requires users to be notified or an entry to be added to a log.

globally unique identifier (GUID): A term used interchangeably with universally unique identifier (UUID) in Microsoft protocol technical documents (TDs). Interchanging the usage of these terms does not imply or require a specific algorithm or mechanism to generate the value. Specifically, the use of this term does not imply or require that the algorithms described in [RFC4122] or [C706] must be used for generating the GUID. See also universally unique identifier (UUID).

handle: Any token that can be used to identify and access an object such as a device, file, or a window.

Hypertext Markup Language (HTML): An application of the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) that uses tags to mark elements in a document, as described in [HTML].

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP): An application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems (text, graphic images, sound, video, and other multimedia files) on the World Wide Web.

ICS state: A set of properties that determine the state of a local replica narrowed down to a specific synchronization scope.

Inbox folder: A special folder that is the default location for Message objects received by a user or resource.

Incremental Change Synchronization (ICS): A data format and algorithm that is used to synchronize folders and messages between two sources.

instant messaging: A method of real-time communication over the Internet in which a sender types a message to one or more recipients and the recipient immediately receives the message in a pop-up window.

Internet Message Access Protocol - Version 4 (IMAP4): A protocol that is used for accessing email and news items from mail servers, as described in [RFC3501].

Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP): The primary access protocol for Active Directory. Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) is an industry-standard protocol, established by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), which allows users to query and update information in a directory service (DS), as described in [MS-ADTS]. The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol can be either version 2 [RFC1777] or version 3 [RFC3377].

mail add-in: An Office Add-in that enhances an email or appointment item.

mailbox: A message store that contains email, calendar items, and other Message objects for a single recipient.

Meeting object: A Calendar object that has both an organizer and attendees.

message body: (1) The content within an HTTP message, as described in [RFC2616] section 4.3.

(2) The main message text of an email message. A few properties of a Message object represent its message body, with one property containing the text itself and others defining its code page and its relationship to alternative body formats.

Message object: A set of properties that represents an email message, appointment, contact, or other type of personal-information-management object. In addition to its own properties, a Message object contains recipient properties that represent the addressees to which it is addressed, and an attachments table that represents any files and other Message objects that are attached to it.

message store: A unit of containment for a single hierarchy of Folder objects, such as a mailbox or public folders.

Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS): A communications protocol that is designed for messages containing text, images, and other multimedia content that is sent between mobile phones.

Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME): A set of extensions that redefines and expands support for various types of content in email messages, as described in [RFC2045], [RFC2046], and [RFC2047].

NT LAN Manager (NTLM) Authentication Protocol: A protocol using a challenge-response mechanism for authentication (2) in which clients are able to verify their identities without sending a password to the server. It consists of three messages, commonly referred to as Type 1 (negotiation), Type 2 (challenge) and Type 3 (authentication). For more information, see [MS-NLMP].

offline address book (OAB): A collection of address lists that are stored in a format that a client can save and use locally.

Post object: A Message object that represents an entry in a discussion thread stored in a messaging store.

Post Office Protocol - Version 3 (POP3): A protocol that is used for accessing email from mail servers, as described in [RFC1939].

public folder: A Folder object that is stored in a location that is publicly available.

remote operation (ROP): An operation that is invoked against a server. Each ROP represents an action, such as delete, send, or query. A ROP is contained in a ROP buffer for transmission over the wire.

remote procedure call (RPC): A context-dependent term commonly overloaded with three meanings. Note that much of the industry literature concerning RPC technologies uses this term interchangeably for any of the three meanings. Following are the three definitions: (*) The runtime environment providing remote procedure call facilities. The preferred usage for this meaning is "RPC runtime". (*) The pattern of request and response message exchange between two parties (typically, a client and a server). The preferred usage for this meaning is "RPC exchange". (*) A single message from an exchange as defined in the previous definition. The preferred usage for this term is "RPC message". For more information about RPC, see [C706].

restriction: A filter used to map some domain into a subset of itself, by passing only those items from the domain that match the filter. Restrictions can be used to filter existing Table objects or to define new ones, such as search folder (2) or rule criteria.

retention policy: A policy that specifies the length of time during which data, documents, and other records must be available for recovery.

Rich Text Format (RTF): Text with formatting as described in [MSFT-RTF].

rights-managed email message: An email message that specifies permissions that are designed to protect its content from inappropriate access, use, and distribution.

S/MIME (Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions): A set of cryptographic security services, as described in [RFC5751].

security descriptor: A data structure containing the security information associated with a securable object. A security descriptor identifies an object's owner by its security identifier (SID). If access control is configured for the object, its security descriptor contains a discretionary access control list (DACL) with SIDs for the security principals who are allowed or denied access. Applications use this structure to set and query an object's security status. The security descriptor is used to guard access to an object as well as to control which type of auditing takes place when the object is accessed. The security descriptor format is specified in [MS-DTYP] section 2.4.6; a string representation of security descriptors, called SDDL, is specified in [MS-DTYP] section 2.5.1.

service connection point: An object that is made available by a directory service and that clients can use to discover Autodiscover servers.

Short Message Service (SMS): A communications protocol that is designed for sending text messages between mobile phones.

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP): A member of the TCP/IP suite of protocols that is used to transport Internet messages, as described in [RFC5321].

site mailbox: A repository comprised of a mailbox and a web-based collaboration environment that is presented to users as a mailbox in an email client. A site mailbox uses team membership to determine which users have access to the repository.

special folder: One of a default set of Folder objects that can be used by an implementation to store and retrieve user data objects.

Unified Messaging: A set of components and services that enable voice, fax, and email messages to be stored in a user's mailbox and accessed from a variety of devices.

Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): A string that identifies a resource. The URI is an addressing mechanism defined in Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax [RFC3986].

vCard: A format for storing and exchanging electronic business cards, as described in [RFC2426].

Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning Protocol (WebDAV): The Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning Protocol, as described in [RFC2518] or [RFC4918].

web service: A unit of application logic that provides data and services to other applications and can be called by using standard Internet transport protocols such as HTTP, Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), or File Transfer Protocol (FTP). Web services can perform functions that range from simple requests to complicated business processes.

Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) Binary XML (WBXML): A compact binary representation of XML that is designed to reduce the transmission size of XML documents over narrowband communication channels.

WSDL message: An abstract, typed definition of the data that is communicated during a WSDL operation [WSDL]. Also, an element that describes the data being exchanged between web service providers and clients.

XML: The Extensible Markup Language, as described in [XML1.0].

XML schema definition (XSD): The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) standard language that is used in defining XML schemas. Schemas are useful for enforcing structure and constraining the types of data that can be used validly within other XML documents. XML schema definition refers to the fully specified and currently recommended standard for use in authoring XML schemas.