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A programming language designed for building enterprise applications that run on the .NET Framework. C#, which is an evolution of C and C++, is type safe and object oriented. Because it is compiled as managed code, it benefits from the services of the common language runtime, such as language interoperability, security, and garbage collection.


A Web page in WML.

WML devices can either display the contents of a card on a single screen or, when necessary, provide scroll bars so that the entire contents of the card can be viewed.

Developers need not worry about manipulating cards or decks (groups of cards) because ASP.NET mobile controls handle formatting, including pagination, for targeted devices. See also: deck, WML.


A list of Web Parts controls (or other Web server, custom server, or user controls), created by a System.Web.UI.WebControls.WebParts.CatalogPart control, that users can add to a Web Parts page. See also: Web parts controls, Web Parts page.


See definition for COM callable wrapper.


The double denoting an overflow button control.


The common user interface elements rendered around each Web Parts part control within a given zone. The chrome for a part control includes a border, a title bar, and the icons, title text, and verbs menu that appear within the title bar. The appearance of the chrome is set at the zone level and applies to all part controls in a zone. The rendering of chrome and of individual System.Web.UI.WebControls.WebParts.WebPart controls is handled by the System.Web.UI.WebControls.WebParts.WebPartChrome class. See also: part controls, Web Parts controls, zone.


A markup language used on some cell phones. cHTML is a subset of HTML with additional tags to enhance mobile functionality.


See definition for Common Information Model.

CIM Object Manager

A component in the WMI infrastructure that handles the interaction between management applications and providers. The CIM Object Manager supports services such as event notification, remote access, and query processing. The CIM Object Manager also grants access to the WMI repository.

CIM schema

In WMI, a collection of class definitions used to represent managed objects that occur in every management environment. See also: schema.


A reference type that encapsulates data (constants and fields) and behavior (methods, properties, indexers, events, operators, instance constructors, static constructors, and destructors), and can contain nested types. Class types support inheritance, a mechanism whereby a derived class can extend and specialize a base class. See also: encapsulation, indexer, property, reference type.

client area

The portion of a Windows-based application excluding toolbars, menus, and status bars.

client coordinates

The coordinates in which the X and Y screen position are specified relative to the upper-left corner of the application, which is regarded as the origin (0,0). In Right-to-Left (RTL) applications, the upper-right corner is the origin.


The area of the screen or page that enables graphics output.

closed generic type

A constructed generic type that has no unspecified generic type parameters, either of its own of or any enclosing types or methods. Closed generic types can be instantiated. See also: constructed generic type, generics, generic type, generic type parameter, open generic type.


See definition for common language runtime.


See definition for Common Language Specification (CLS).


Code that publicly exposes only language features that are in the Common Language Specification. CLS compliance can apply to classes, interfaces, components, and tools. See also: Common Language Specification (CLS).

code access security

A mechanism provided by the common language runtime whereby managed code is granted permissions by security policy and these permissions are enforced, helping to limit the operations that the code will be allowed to perform.

code-behind class

A class that is accessed by an .aspx file, but resides in a separate file (such as a .dll or .cs file). For example, you can write a code-behind class that creates an ASP.NET custom server control, contains code that is called from an .aspx file, but does not reside within the .aspx file.

code-behind file

A code file containing the page class that implements the program logic of a Web Forms or ASP.NET mobile Web Forms application.

code-behind page

See definition for code-behind file.

COM callable wrapper (CCW)

A proxy object generated by the common language runtime so that existing COM applications can use managed classes, including .NET Framework classes, transparently.

COM interop

A service that enables .NET Framework objects to communicate with COM objects.

Common Information Model (CIM)

In WMI, the model that describes how to represent real-world managed objects. CIM uses an object-oriented paradigm, where managed objects are modeled using the concepts of classes and instances. The CIM is divided into the metamodel and the standard schema. The metamodel describes what types of entities make up the schema. It also defines how these entities can be combined into objects that represent real-world devices.

common language runtime

The engine at the core of managed code execution. The runtime supplies managed code with services such as cross-language integration, code access security, object lifetime management, and debugging and profiling support.

common language runtime host

An unmanaged application that uses a set of APIs, called the hosting interfaces, to integrate managed code into the application. Common language runtime hosts often require a high degree of customization over the runtime that is loaded into the process. The hosting interfaces allow common language runtime hosts to specify settings that configure the garbage collector, select the appropriate build for their environment (server versus workstation), and so on. Common language runtime hosts often support an extensibility model that allows the end user to dynamically add new pieces of functionality, such as a new control or a user-written function. These extensions are typically isolated from each other in the process using application domains and custom security settings. Examples of common language runtime hosts include ASP.NET, Microsoft Internet Explorer, and a host to run executables launched from the Windows Shell. See also: application domain, common language runtime, managed code.

Common Language Specification (CLS)

A subset of language features supported by the common language runtime, including features common to several object-oriented programming languages. CLS-compliant components and tools are guaranteed to interoperate with other CLS-compliant components and tools. See also: CLS-compliant.

common object file format (COFF)

A format in 32-bit programming for executable (image) and object files that is portable across platforms. The Microsoft implementation is called portable executable (PE) file format. See also: portable executable (PE) file.

common type system (CTS)

The specification that determines how the common language runtime defines, uses, and manages types.

comparison evaluator

A filter that compares a device capability name to a value. See also: device capabilities.

composite control

A custom server control that consists of a custom collection of other server controls as child controls.

configuration file

An XML file with the .config extension that contains option settings for an application or Web site. Common configuration files include Machine.config and Web.config.


See definition for Web Parts connection.

connection point

A System.Web.UI.WebControls.WebParts.ConnectionPoint object associated with the provider and consumer controls that participate in Web Parts connections. A connection point manages the exchange of data between the controls. Providers and consumers each have their own connection points. See also: consumer, provider, Web Parts connection.


See definition for generic type parameter constraint.

constructed generic type

A generic type whose generic type parameters have been specified. A constructed type or method can be an open generic type, if some of its type arguments are type parameters of enclosing types or methods; or a closed generic type if all of its type arguments are real types. See also: closed generic type, generics, generic type, generic type argument, generic type parameter, open generic type.

constructed type

See definition for constructed generic type.


In a Web Parts connection, a server control that receives data from a provider control and processes or displays it. A consumer can be any type of server control, but must be designed to function as a consumer. A consumer must have a special callback method marked with a ConnectionConsumerAttribute attribute in the source code. This method receives data from the provider in the form of an interface instance. See also: connection point, provider, Web Parts connection.


See definition for naming container.

container control

A type of ASP.NET mobile control that contains other controls and provides visual groupings of controls and content.

content page

In ASP.NET, a Web page that is configured to be merged with a master page to create a complete page. See also: master page.


An ordered sequence of properties that define an environment for the objects that reside inside it. Contexts are created during the activation process for objects that are configured to require certain automatic services such as synchronization, transactions, just-in-time activation, security, and so on. Multiple objects can live inside a context.

context property

The implicit state, and code to manage that state, held on behalf of an object instance. For example, the transaction context property holds the transaction identifier of the transaction that the object is participating in.


The behavior and state that a class provides, which is matched with what a client of that class can expect to hold. A contract is expressed partly by the signatures for all public fields, methods, properties, and events of that class. This is augmented by a description (usually in simple descriptive text) of what each field or property represents, together with what each method does.

control state

A field in an ASP.NET Web page that stores the current property settings for server controls on the page. Control state is used to recreate the page and reestablish previous settings on each postback. See also: ASP.NET page, ASP.NET server control, postback, view state.

cross-page posting

In ASP.NET Web pages, the process of submitting a page to a specified target page in contrast to submitting the page to itself. See also: postback.


See definition for common type system.

custom attribute (Attribute)

A class used to represent custom metadata. See also: attribute.

custom control

A control authored by a user or a third-party software vendor that does not belong to the .NET Framework class library. This is a generic term that also includes user controls. Custom server controls are used in Web Forms (ASP.NET pages). Custom client controls are used in Windows Forms applications.