Sub Statement
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Sub Statement (Visual Basic)

Declares the name, parameters, and code that define a Sub procedure.

[ <attributelist> ] [ Partial ] [ accessmodifier ] [ proceduremodifiers ] [ Shared ] [ Shadows ] 
Sub name [ (Of typeparamlist) ] [ (parameterlist) ] [ Implements implementslist | Handles eventlist ]
    [ statements ]
    [ Exit Sub ]
    [ statements ]
End Sub


Optional. See Attribute List.


Optional. Indicates definition of a partial method. See Partial Methods.


Optional. Can be one of the following:

See Access Levels in Visual Basic.


Optional. Can be one of the following:


Optional. See Shared.


Optional. See Shadows.


Required. Name of the procedure. See Declared Element Names.


Optional. List of type parameters for a generic procedure. See Type List.


Optional. List of local variable names representing the parameters of this procedure. See Parameter List.


Optional. Indicates that this procedure implements one or more Sub procedures, each one defined in an interface implemented by this procedure's containing class or structure. See Implements Statement.


Required if Implements is supplied. List of Sub procedures being implemented.

implementedprocedure [ , implementedprocedure ... ]

Each implementedprocedure has the following syntax and parts:





Required. Name of an interface implemented by this procedure's containing class or structure.


Required. Name by which the procedure is defined in interface.


Optional. Indicates that this procedure can handle one or more specific events. See Handles.


Required if Handles is supplied. List of events this procedure handles.

eventspecifier [ , eventspecifier ... ]

Each eventspecifier has the following syntax and parts:





Required. Object variable declared with the data type of the class or structure that raises the event.


Required. Name of the event this procedure handles.


Optional. Block of statements to run within this procedure.


Terminates the definition of this procedure.

All executable code must be inside a procedure. Use a Sub procedure when you do not need to return a value to the calling code. Use a Function procedure when you need to return a value.

You can use Sub only at module level. This means the declaration context for a sub procedure must be a class, structure, module, or interface, and cannot be a source file, namespace, procedure, or block. For more information, see Declaration Contexts and Default Access Levels.

Sub procedures default to public access. You can adjust their access levels with the access modifiers.


  • Implementation. If this procedure uses the Implements keyword, the containing class or structure must have an Implements statement immediately following its Class or Structure statement. The Implements statement must include each interface specified in implementslist. However, the name by which an interface defines the Sub (in definedname) does not have to be the same as the name of this procedure (in name).


  • Returning from a Procedure. When the Sub procedure returns to the calling code, execution continues with the statement following the statement that called it.

    The Exit Sub and Return statements cause an immediate exit from a Sub procedure. Any number of Exit Sub and Return statements can appear anywhere in the procedure, and you can mix Exit Sub and Return statements.

    The following example shows a return from a Sub procedure.

    Sub mySub(ByVal q As String)
    End Sub 
  • Calling a Procedure. A Sub procedure, like a Function procedure, is a separate procedure that can take parameters and perform a series of statements. However, unlike a Function procedure, which returns a value, a Sub procedure cannot be used in an expression.

    You call a Sub procedure by using the procedure name, followed by the argument list in parentheses, in a statement. You can omit the parentheses only if you are not supplying any arguments. However, your code is more readable if you always include the parentheses.

    You can optionally use the Call statement to call a Sub procedure. This can improve the readability of your code.


Order of Execution. Visual Basic sometimes rearranges arithmetic expressions to increase internal efficiency. For that reason, if your argument list includes expressions that call other procedures, you cannot rely on them being called in any particular order.

The following example uses the Sub statement to define the name, parameters, and code that form the body of a Sub procedure.

Sub computeArea(ByVal length As Double, ByVal width As Double)
    ' Declare local variable. 
    Dim area As Double 
    If length = 0 Or width = 0 Then 
        ' If either argument = 0 then exit Sub immediately. 
        Exit Sub 
    End If 
    ' Calculate area of rectangle.
    area = length * width
    ' Print area to Immediate window.
End Sub
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