17 O

Office

obfuscation key: A secret shared key combined with a cryptographic hash function that is intended to prevent a reversal of an encoding process. See also XOR obfuscation.

object: (1) A set of attributes (1), each with its associated values. Two attributes of an object have special significance: an identifying attribute and a parent-identifying attribute. An identifying attribute is a designated single-valued attribute that appears on every object; the value of this attribute identifies the object. For the set of objects in a replica, the values of the identifying attribute are distinct. A parent-identifying attribute is a designated single-valued attribute that appears on every object; the value of this attribute identifies the object's parent. That is, this attribute contains the value of the parent's identifying attribute, or a reserved value identifying no object. For the set of objects in a replica, the values of this parent-identifying attribute define a tree with objects as vertices and child-parent references as directed edges with the child as an edge's tail and the parent as an edge's head. Note that an object is a value, not a variable; a replica is a variable. The process of adding, modifying, or deleting an object in a replica replaces the entire value of the replica with a new value. As the word replica suggests, it is often the case that two replicas contain "the same objects". In this usage, objects in two replicas are considered the same if they have the same value of the identifying attribute and if there is a process in place (replication) to converge the values of the remaining attributes. When the members of a set of replicas are considered to be the same, it is common to say "an object" as shorthand referring to the set of corresponding objects in the replicas.

(2) In Active Directory, an entity consisting of a set of attributes, each attribute with a set of associated values. For more information, see [MS-ADTS].

(3) In COM, a software entity that implements the IUnknown interface and zero or more additional interfaces that may be obtained from each other using the IUnknown interface. A COM object can be exposed to remote clients via the DCOM protocol, in which case it is also a DCOM object.

(4) In the DCOM protocol, a software entity that implements one or more object remote protocol (ORPC) interfaces and which is uniquely identified, within the scope of an object exporter, by an object identifier (OID) (1). For more information, see [MS-DCOM].

(5) A set of attributes, each with its associated values. For more information on objects, see [MS-ADTS] section 1 or [MS-DRSR] section 1.

(6) In Active Directory, an entity consisting of a set of attributes, each attribute with a set of associated values. For more information, see [MS-ADTS]. See also directory object.

(7) In COM, a software entity that implements the IUnknown interface and zero or more additional interfaces that may be obtained from each other using the IUnknown interface. A COMobject can be exposed to remote clients via the DCOM protocol, in which case it is also a DCOMobject (4).

(8) In the DCOM protocol, a software entity that implements one or more object remote protocol (ORPC) interfaces and which is uniquely identified, within the scope of an object exporter, by an object identifier (OID) (1). For more information, see [MS-DCOM].

(9) In COM, an instance of an object class. Each object implements one or more interfaces that may be obtained from each other by using the IUnknown interface.

(10) The root of the type hierarchy. For more information, see [ECMA-335].

(11) A file, email, email attachment, contact, calendar appointment or any other self-contained item that can be indexed and searched for by the GSS.

object class: (1) A predicate defined on objects (1) that constrains their attributes (1). Also an identifier for such a predicate.

(2) A set of restrictions on the construction and update of objects. An object class can specify a set of must-have attributes (every object of the class must have at least one value of each) and may-have attributes (every object of the class may have a value of each). An object class can also specify the allowable classes for the parent object of an object in the class. An object class can be defined by single-inheritance; an object whose class is defined in this way is a member of all object classes used to derive its most specific class. An object class is defined in a classSchema object.

(3) In COM, a category of objects (3) identified by a CLSID, members of which can be obtained through activation of the CLSID.

(4) In the DCOM protocol, a category of objects (4) identified by a CLSID, members of which can be obtained through activation of the CLSID. An object class is typically associated with a common set of interfaces that are implemented by all objects in the object class.

(5) A predicate defined on objects that constrains their attributes. Also an identifier for such a predicate.

(6) A set of restrictions on the construction and update of objects. An object class can specify a set of must-have attributes (every object of the class must have at least one value of each) and may-have attributes (every object of the class may have a value of each). An object class can also specify the allowable classes for the parent object of an object in the class. An object class can be defined by single inheritance; an object whose class is defined in this way is a member of all object classes used to derive its most specific class. An object class is defined in a classSchema object. See section 1 of [MS-ADTS] and section 1 of [MS-DRSR].

(7) In COM, a category of objects (3) identified by a CLSID, members of which can be obtained through activation of the CLSID.

(8) In the DCOM protocol, a category of objects (4) identified by a CLSID, members of which can be obtained through activation of the CLSID. An object class is typically associated with a common set of interfaces that are implemented by all objects in the object class.

object exporter: An object container (for example, process, machine, thread) in an object server. Object exporters are callable using RPC interfaces, and they are responsible for dispatching calls to the objects they contain.

object identifier (OID): (1) In the context of an object server, a 64-bit number that uniquely identifies an object.

(2) In the context of a directory service, a number identifying an object class or attribute (2). Object identifiers are issued by the ITU and form a hierarchy. An OID is represented as a dotted decimal string (for example, "1.2.3.4"). For more information on OIDs, see [X660] and [RFC3280] Appendix A. OIDs are used to uniquely identify certificate templates available to the certification authority (CA) (1). Within a certificate (1), OIDs are used to identify standard extensions, as described in [RFC3280] section 4.2.1.x, as well as non-standard extensions.

(3) In the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), a sequence of numbers in a format described by [RFC1778]. In many LDAP directory implementations, an OID is the standard internal representation of an attribute. In the directory model used in this specification, the more familiar ldapDisplayName represents an attribute.

(4) In the context of ASN.1, an object identifier, as described in [ITUX680].

(5) A variable-length identifier from a namespace administered by the ITU. Objects, protocols, and so on that make use of ASN.1 or Basic Encoding Rules (BER), Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER), or Canonical Encoding Rules (CER) encoding format leverage identities from the ITU. For more information, see [ITUX680].

(6) In the context of a directory service, a number identifying an object class or attribute. Object identifiers are issued by the ITU and form a hierarchy. An OID is represented as a dotted decimal string (for example, "1.2.3.4"). For more information on OIDs, see [X660] and Appendix A of [RFC3280]. OIDs are used to uniquely identify certificate templates available to the certificate authority (CA). Within a certificate, OIDs are used to identify standard extensions as covered in [RFC3280] section 4.2.1.x, as well as non-standard extensions.

(7) In the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), a sequence of numbers in a format specified by [RFC1778]. In many LDAP directory implementations, an OID is the standard internal representation of an attribute. In the directory model used in [MS-ADTS], the more familiar ldapDisplayName represents an attribute.

(8) In the context of Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1), an object identifier, as specified in [ITUX680].

(9) A variable-length identifier from a namespace administered by the ITU. Objects, protocols, and so on that make use of ASN.1 or Basic Encoding Rules (BER), Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER), or Canonical Encoding Rules (CER) encoding format leverage identities from the ITU. For more information, see [ITUX680].

Object Linking and Embedding (OLE): A technology for transferring and sharing information between applications by inserting a file or part of a file into a compound document. The inserted file can be either embedded or linked. See also embedded object and linked object.

object model: A collection of object-oriented APIs that represent data structures and are designed to promote software interoperability.

object of class x (or x object): An object o such that one of the values of its objectClass attributes is x. For instance, if objectClass contains the value user, o is an object of class user. This is often contracted to "user object".

object reference: (1) An attribute value that references an object. Reading a reference gives the distinguished name (DN) of the object.

(2) In the DCOM protocol, a reference to an object (4), represented on the wire as an OBJREF. An object reference enables the object to be reached by entities outside the object'sobject exporter.

(3) An attribute value that references an object; reading a reference gives the distinguished name (DN) or full dsname of the object.

OBJREF: The marshaled form of an object reference.

OCXDropDown control: A type of DropDown control that displays a list of the ActiveX controls that are available within that application.

ODBC: See Open Database Connectivity (ODBC).

offer: A message that is sent by an offerer.

Office data connection (ODC) file: A file that stores information about a connection to a data source, such as an Access database, worksheet, or text file. This file facilitates data source administration.

Office Web Extension: See app for Office.

offline: (1) The condition of not being connected to or not being on a network or the Internet. Offline can also refer to a device, such as a printer that is not connected to a computer, and files that are stored on a computer that is not connected to or not on a network or the Internet.

(2) An operational state applicable to volumes and disks. In the offline state, the volume or disk is unavailable for data input/output (I/O) or configuration.

OLAP: See Online Analytical Processing (OLAP).

OLAP All level: An optional level at the top of a hierarchy. It typically contains an OLAP All member that represents an aggregation of all of the lower-level members of that hierarchy.

OLAP All member: A multidimensional expression (MDX) that evaluates a hierarchy and returns a set that contains all of the members of the specified hierarchy.

OLAP allocation: An operation in which the values for members at lower levels in an OLAP hierarchy are changed based on changes to values for members at higher levels in that hierarchy.

OLAP calculated member: An OLAP member whose value is calculated at run time.

OLAP cube: A data structure that aggregates Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) measures by OLAP levels and OLAP hierarchies. An OLAP cube combines several OLAP hierarchies, such as time, geography, and product lines, with OLAP measures, such as sales or inventory figures.

OLAP hierarchy: An attribute hierarchy or a user-defined hierarchy in a data structure. By default, each dimension attribute (1) has an attribute hierarchy. A user-defined hierarchy is a set of related attribute hierarchies that is used to facilitate browsing an OLAP cube.

OLAP KPI: See key performance indicator (KPI).

OLAP level: Within an OLAP hierarchy, a set of data that is organized into a lower or higher level of detail, such as Year, Quarter, Month, and Day levels in a Time hierarchy.

OLAP measure: A set of numeric values in an OLAP cube that is used in aggregation and analysis.

OLAP measure group: A collection of related OLAP measures in an OLAP cube. An OLAP cube can contain multiple measure groups.

OLAP member: An item that is in an OLAP level. For example, a Canada member in a Country level of a Geography hierarchy.

OLAP member property: A relationship between two OLAP hierarchies, such as a Population member property of a Country member.

OLAP named set: A collection of OLAP tuples that have the same dimensionality. Also referred to as OLAP set.

OLAP subselect: The ability to execute multiple SELECT commands in a FROM clause that is inside a multidimensional expression (MDX) statement.

OLAP tuple: An ordered collection of members that are from different dimensions of an OLAP cube. A single member is a special case of a tuple.

OLAP weight expression: A multidimensional expression (MDX) that is used to apply and allocate modified values to an Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) provider. It typically returns a decimal value between "0" and "1".

OLE compound file: A form of structured storage, as described in [MS-CFB]. A compound file allows independent storages and streams to exist within a single file.

OLE control: A reusable software component that is designed to work in containers that support Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) 2.0.

OLE DB: A set of interfaces that are based on the Component Object Model (COM) programming model and expose data from a variety of sources. These interfaces support the amount of Database Management System (DBMS) functionality that is appropriate for a data store and they enable a data store to share data.

OLE link: A connection between an Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) object and its OLE server. See also DDE link.

OLE object: An object that supports the Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) protocol.

OLE server: An application or DLL that supplies a linked or embedded OLE object to another application.

OLE1: See Object Linking and Embedding (OLE).

OLE2: See Object Linking and Embedding (OLE).

OleTx: A comprehensive distributed transaction manager processing protocol that uses the protocols specified in the following document(s): [MS-CMPO], [MS-CMP], [MS-DTCLU], [MS-DTCM], [MS-DTCO], [MC-DTCXA], [MS-TIPP], and [MS-CMOM].

onefiles folder: A folder that stores file data objects for a OneNote revision store file. It is located in the same directory as the revision store file and the folder name maps to the name of the revision store file. For example, if the revision store file is named “section.one” the onefiles folder is named “section_onefiles”.

one-variable data table: A data table that consists of only one input cell, which is either a row input cell or a column input cell.

One-Way Method: A Remote Method that has no application response sent from the implementation of the Remote Method back to the caller. This pattern is sometimes referred to as "fire and forget".

Online Analytical Processing (OLAP): A technology that uses multidimensional structures to provide access to data for analysis. The source data for OLAP is stored in data warehouses in a relational database. See also cube.

Open Data Protocol (OData): A web protocol for querying and updating data specified in [MS-ODATA].

Open Database Connectivity (ODBC): A standard software API method for accessing data that is stored in a variety of proprietary personal computer, minicomputer, and mainframe databases. It is an implementation of [ISO/IEC9075-3:2008] and provides extensions to that standard.

Open Item permission: An authorization that enables users to retrieve an entire file.

opnum: An operation number or numeric identifier that is used to identify a specific remote procedure call (RPC) method or a method in an interface. For more information, see [C706] section 12.5.2.12 or [MS-RPCE].

optional feature: A non-default behavior that modifies the Active Directory state model. An optional feature is enabled or disabled in a specific scope, such as a forest or a domain. For more information, refer to [MS-ADTS] section 3.1.1.9.

orbit: A number that uniquely identifies a parked call and enables a user agent to retrieve that call. The number is assigned automatically by a call park service (CPS) and is sent to the user agent who parked the call.

organization: (1) A security group that contains additional fields (1) for describing hierarchical relationships between organizations.

(2) A collection of forests, including the current forest, whose TRUST_ATTRIBUTE_CROSS_ORGANIZATION bit of the Trust attribute ([MS-ADTS] section 6.1.6.7.9) of the trusted domain object (TDO) is not set.

organizational unit: An AD DS container object that is used within domains. An organizational unit is a logical container into which users, groups, computers, and other organizational units are placed. It can contain objects only from its parent domain. An organizational unit is the smallest scope to which a Group Policy object (GPO) can be linked, or over which administrative authority can be delegated.

organizer: The owner or creator of a conference or event.

originating update: An update that is performed to an NC replica via any protocol except replication. An originating update to an attribute or link value generates a new stamp for the attribute or link value.

originating video source (OVS): An entity that locally produces a video stream and sends the video stream to another party or to a Multipoint Control Unit (MCU). For example, a protocol client that is configured with a video camera.

orphaned term: A term whose source term was deleted.

outbound: Network traffic flowing from the server to the client.

outbound proxy: (1) A network node that acts as a proxy for outbound traffic between a protocol client and a protocol server.

(2) A network node that acts as an RPC over HTTP proxy for outbound traffic between an RPC client and an RPC server.

outcome: One of the three possible results (Commit, Abort, In Doubt) reachable at the end of a life cycle for an atomic transaction.

outline: A nested grouping of rows or columns (2) that are in a worksheet.

outline collapse: A process in which rows or columns (2) of an outline are made invisible.

outline effect: A formatting effect in which a line is placed around the edge of a shape or around each character in a text string.

outline expand: A process in which rows or columns (2) of an outline are made visible.

outline level: (1) The number of levels that a task is indented from the top level of an outline; the order associated with an outline.

(2) A type of paragraph formatting that can be used to assign a hierarchical level, Level 1 through Level 9, to paragraphs in a document. After outline levels are assigned, an outline of a document can be viewed by using Outline view, the document map, or the navigation pane.

outline state: A setting that specifies whether an outline is currently outline expanded or outline collapsed.

out-of-memory: A state of a computer or application when it halts because all of the available volatile memory has been allocated and none is currently available for reallocation.

OutputFilter: A FilterDescriptor type that is used while calling an operation for a line-of-business (LOB) system. Additional results of an operation that cannot be captured by a ReturnTypeDescriptor can be retrieved as a value of an OutputFilter.

owner: A security principal (2) who has the requisite permission to manage a security group.

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