1.1 Glossary


This document uses the following terms:

ActiveX control: A reusable software control, such as a check box or button, that uses ActiveX technology and provides options to users or runs macros or scripts that automate a task. See also ActiveX object.

add-in: Supplemental functionality that is provided by an external application or macro to extend the capabilities of an application.

atom record: A record that contains presentation data. Analogous to a file system, atom records are similar to files that contain data and container records are similar to directories that provide structure and hierarchy for atom records.

Audio Interchange File Format (AIFF): A sound file format that was originally used on Macintosh and Silicon Graphics (SGI) computers. AIFF stores waveform files in an 8-bit monaural format. See also waveform (WAV).

Audio Video Interleaved (AVI): A multimedia file format for sound and video that uses the Microsoft Resource Interchange File Format (RIFF).

Augmented Backus-Naur Form (ABNF): A modified version of Backus-Naur Form (BNF), commonly used by Internet specifications. ABNF notation balances compactness and simplicity with reasonable representational power. ABNF differs from standard BNF in its definitions and uses of naming rules, repetition, alternatives, order-independence, and value ranges. For more information, see [RFC5234].

big-endian: Multiple-byte values that are byte-ordered with the most significant byte stored in the memory location with the lowest address.

bookmark: An entity that is used in a document to denote the beginning and ending character positions of specific text in the document, and optionally, metadata about that text or its relationship to other referenced parts of the document.

Boolean: An operation or expression that can be evaluated only as either true or false.

build: An animation effect that is applied to content on a presentation slide. The complete animation for a given piece of content is specified as a sequence of builds, where each build causes parts of the content to appear, disappear, move, or be emphasized in some manner.

build identifier: An integer that identifies a build.

code page: An ordered set of characters of a specific script in which a numerical index (code-point value) is associated with each character. Code pages are a means of providing support for character sets and keyboard layouts used in different countries. Devices such as the display and keyboard can be configured to use a specific code page and to switch from one code page (such as the United States) to another (such as Portugal) at the user's request.

color scheme: A table of color values that enables colors to be referenced by an index value in the table instead of a color value. See also color palette.

color space: A system that describes color numerically by mapping color components to a multidimensional coordinate system. The number of dimensions is typically two, three, or four. For example, if colors are expressed as a combination of the three components red, green, and blue, a three-dimensional space can describe all possible colors. Grayscale colors can be mapped to a two-dimensional color space. If transparency is considered a component, four dimensions are appropriate. Also referred to as color model.

computer name: The DNS or NetBIOS name.

container record: A record that defines the structure and hierarchy of atom records and other container records.

cyclic redundancy check (CRC): An algorithm used to produce a checksum (a small, fixed number of bits) against a block of data, such as a packet of network traffic or a block of a computer file. The CRC is a broad class of functions used to detect errors after transmission or storage. A CRC is designed to catch random errors, as opposed to intentional errors. If errors might be introduced by a motivated and intelligent adversary, a cryptographic hash function should be used instead.

encrypted document: A document that was converted from plaintext into cipher text to disguise the content of the document when it is stored or sent.

envelope: A container that stores the information that is used to send a document, workbook, or presentation in an email message. The information includes the intended recipients, the subject of the email message, and any attachments to be included.

external object: An object such as a movie file, audio file, OLE object, or hyperlink that can be associated with a presentation or document.

floating-point number: A number that is represented by a mantissa and an exponent according to a given base. The mantissa is typically a value between "0" and "1". To find the value of a floating-point number, the base is raised to the power of the exponent, and the mantissa is multiplied by the result.

footer: One or more lines of text in the bottom margin area of a page in a document or a slide in a presentation. A footer typically contains elements such as the page number and the name of the file.

grid unit: A unit of linear measurement that is equal to 1/1024 master unit or 1/589824 inch.

guide: A vertical or a horizontal line that can be set as part of the user interface to position and align content on a slide.

handout master slide: A slide that defines layout and positioning information for handout pages, which are pages that are optimized for printing a presentation.

handout slide: A slide that is taken from a presentation and then printed and distributed to the audience of the presentation. Users can select the number of slides to be printed on each page in a handout.

header: A line, or lines, of content in the top margin area of a page in a document or a slide in a presentation. A header typically contains elements such as the title of the chapter, the title of the document, a page number, or the name of the author.

hue-saturation-luminance (HSL): A color model that defines a color by using three dimensions: hue, the color itself; saturation, the purity of the color; and luminance, the amount of light that is either reflected or absorbed by the color. See also color scheme and color space.

hyperlink: A relationship between two anchors, as described in [RFC1866].

kiosk mode: A display mode in which a single window expands to fill the whole screen. In kiosk mode, the toolbar and menu bar are not displayed, and the desktop is inaccessible.

little-endian: Multiple-byte values that are byte-ordered with the least significant byte stored in the memory location with the lowest address.

macro: A set of instructions that are recorded or written, and then typically saved to a file. When a macro is run, all of the instructions are performed automatically.

main master slide: A slide that defines the formatting and content that can be used by presentation slides. If a slide uses formatting and content from a main master slide, it is referred to as following a main master slide.

master unit: A unit of linear measurement that is equal to 1/576 inch.

Media Control Interface (MCI): A part of the Windows API that enables an application to control multimedia devices. The term is also used to generically describe any media object that can be played through the interface.

metafile: A file that stores an image as graphical objects, such as lines, circles, and polygons, instead of pixels. A metafile preserves an image more accurately than pixels when an image is resized.

Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI): A specification of the MIDI Manufacturers Association (MMA). The specification for Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) defines a protocol for describing music data, such as note on and note off messages; a file format for storing music data, called Standard MIDI; and a standard hardware interface.

named show: A named sequence of slides that can be displayed as a slide show.

notes master slide: A slide that defines the formatting and content that can be used by notes slides for a presentation. If a notes slide uses formatting and content from a notes master slide, it is referred to as following a notes master slide.

notes slide: A slide that contains presentation notes or other information that is not displayed during a slide show. The formatting and content of a notes slide can derive from a notes master slide.

Object Linking and Embedding (OLE): A technology for transferring and sharing information between applications by inserting a file or part of a file into a compound document. The inserted file can be either embedded or linked. See also embedded object and linked object.

OLE compound file: A form of structured storage, as described in [MS-CFB]. A compound file allows independent storages and streams to exist within a single file.

OLE object: An object that supports the Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) protocol.

OLE verb: An action defined by an OLE-linked object that specifies what behaviors can be applied to it.

persist object: A top-level object that can be independently persisted and that forms the basis of an incremental save model. A persist object is one of the following: presentation document, main master slide, title master slide, handout master slide, notes master slide, presentation slide, notes slide, OLE object storage, or Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) project storage.

persist object directory: A table of persist object identifiers and stream offsets to where persist objects can be found. Each user edit stores a persist object directory that identifies where any new and modified persist objects can be found.

persist object identifier: A unique identifier that is associated with a persist object and is stored in a persist object directory.

placeholder: A character or symbol that is used in place of an actual value, text, or object. The actual value that the placeholder represents is unknown or unavailable at the current time, or is not displayed for security reasons.

placeholder shape: A special type of shape in a presentation that usually includes common visual properties. These are used to effect a uniform look among different slides, or to uniformly represent meta-information about each slide.

point: A unit of measurement for fonts and spacing. A point is equal to 1/72 of an inch.

Portable Network Graphics (PNG): A bitmap graphics file format that uses lossless data compression and supports variable transparency of images (alpha channels) and control of image brightness on different computers (gamma correction). PNG-format files have a .png file name extension.

presentation: A collection of slides that are intended to be viewed by an audience.

presentation broadcast: A feature that enables users to run a presentation over the web. The presentation is saved in HTML format and can contain audio and video. It can also be recorded and saved for viewing later.

presentation comment: A text note that is attached to a slide to enable readers of a presentation to provide feedback to the presentation author.

presentation slide: A slide that contains the content that can be displayed during a slide show. A presentation slide can derive formatting and content from a main master slide or a title master slide.

programmable tag: A name/value pair. The value can be either a Unicode string or binary data.

red-green-blue (RGB): A color model that describes color information in terms of the red (R), green (G), and blue (B) intensities in a color.

routing slip: Information that specifies how a document is to be distributed from a document originator and processed by one or more recipients. It also specifies subject and message body text that is associated with the document routing process and routing status or workflow information.

seed: A value that is greater than or equal to all other values in a set of values and is used to create the next value in the set.

shape: A collection of qualifiers, such as names, and quantifiers, such as coordinates, that is used to represent a geometric object. A shape can be contained in a document, file structure, run-time structure, or other medium.

shape identifier: An integer that corresponds to a shape object or an instantiation of a shape object.

slide: A frame that contains text, shapes, pictures, or other content. A slide is a digital equivalent to a traditional film slide.

slide layout: An organizational scheme, such as Title Only or Comparison, for content on a presentation slide.

slide show: A delivery of a sequence of presentation slides, typically to an audience.

smart tag: A feature that adds the ability to recognize and label specific data types, such as people's names, within a document and displays an action button that enables users to perform common tasks for that data type.

sound identifier: A unique identifier for an embedded or linked sound.

table object: A group of shapes that are arranged in rows and columns to form a table.

text ruler: A collection of settings for tabs, margins, and indentation of text. See also ruler.

time condition: A logical condition that can be evaluated, or an event that can be triggered, to determine whether timed object behavior starts or ends. Conditions include items such as the start or end of time nodes, keyboard presses, mouse clicks, or delegate events. See also time node.

time node: A record or parent node that stores the information that is necessary to cause a time- or action-based effect to occur. Each time node has a corresponding object to which an effect is applied. It can be used randomly, simultaneously, or sequentially, and it can be used to specify certain time-based effects between objects that are being animated. Effects include visual and media behaviors.

title master slide: A slide that defines the formatting and content that can be used by presentation slides that have a title slide layout. If a slide uses formatting and content from a title master slide, it is referred to as following a title master slide.

Unicode: A character encoding standard developed by the Unicode Consortium that represents almost all of the written languages of the world. The Unicode standard [UNICODE5.0.0/2007] provides three forms (UTF-8, UTF-16, and UTF-32) and seven schemes (UTF-8, UTF-16, UTF-16 BE, UTF-16 LE, UTF-32, UTF-32 LE, and UTF-32 BE).

Uniform Resource Locator (URL): A string of characters in a standardized format that identifies a document or resource on the World Wide Web. The format is as specified in [RFC1738].

Universal Naming Convention (UNC): A string format that specifies the location of a resource. For more information, see [MS-DTYP] section 2.2.57.

user edit: A set of persist objects and a persist object directory that represent changes made by a user. Each time a file is written, a user edit that contains only those persist objects that are new or modified from the previous user edit can be appended to the pre-existing record stream. The persist objects and the persist object directory in a later user edit supersede those in a previous user edit.

VBA project: A collection of the modules, class modules, and user forms that are needed to create an application. Modules, class modules, and user forms can be imported into and exported from a project.

Vector Markup Language (VML): A system of marking up or tagging two-dimensional vector graphics for publication on the World Wide Web. VML graphics are scalable and editable, and typically require less disk space and less time to download.

Visual Basic for Applications (VBA): A macro-based programming language that derives from Microsoft Visual Basic and can be used to customize and extend an application. Unlike Visual Basic, VBA code and macros can be run only from within a host application that supports VBA.

waveform (WAV): A file format in which Windows stores sounds as waveforms. Depending on the sampling frequency, whether the sound is monaural or stereo, and whether 8 or 16 bits are used for each sample, one minute of sound can occupy as little as 644 kilobytes or as much as 27 megabytes of storage. Waveform files have a .wav file name extension.

MAY, SHOULD, MUST, SHOULD NOT, MUST NOT: These terms (in all caps) are used as defined in [RFC2119]. All statements of optional behavior use either MAY, SHOULD, or SHOULD NOT.