1.1 Glossary


This document uses the following terms:

200 OK: A response to indicate that the request has succeeded.

acknowledgment (ACK): A signal passed between communicating processes or computers to signify successful receipt of a transmission as part of a communications protocol.

Active Directory: A general-purpose network directory service. Active Directory also refers to the Windows implementation of a directory service. Active Directory stores information about a variety of objects in the network. Importantly, user accounts, computer accounts, groups, and all related credential information used by the Windows implementation of Kerberos are stored in Active Directory. Active Directory is either deployed as Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) or Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS). [MS-ADTS] describes both forms. For more information, see [MS-AUTHSOD] section, Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) versions 2 and 3, Kerberos, and DNS.

Address Book Server (ABS): A component that produces address book files on a daily basis.

agent: A device that is connected to a computer network. Also referred to as an endpoint.

Audio/Video Edge Server (A/V Edge Server): A protocol server that implements the Traversal Using Relay NAT (TURN) Extensions Protocol, as described in [MS-TURN]. The protocol server provides connectivity to a protocol client that is behind a network entity, if the network entity provides network address translation (NAT).

authentication: The act of proving an identity to a server while providing key material that binds the identity to subsequent communications.

bandwidth management endpoint: A protocol client that communicates with a protocol server to discover and enforce applicable bandwidth policies, and to track and send updates about bandwidth utilization to that server.

certificate: A certificate is a collection of attributes (1) and extensions that can be stored persistently. The set of attributes in a certificate can vary depending on the intended usage of the certificate. A certificate securely binds a public key to the entity that holds the corresponding private key. A certificate is commonly used for authentication and secure exchange of information on open networks, such as the Internet, extranets, and intranets. Certificates are digitally signed by the issuing certification authority (CA) and can be issued for a user, a computer, or a service. The most widely accepted format for certificates is defined by the ITU-T X.509 version 3 international standards. For more information about attributes and extensions, see [RFC3280] and [X509] sections 7 and 8.

certification authority (CA): A third party that issues public key certificates. Certificates serve to bind public keys to a user identity. Each user and certification authority (CA) can decide whether to trust another user or CA for a specific purpose, and whether this trust should be transitive. For more information, see [RFC3280].

contact: A presence entity (presentity) whose presence information can be tracked. 

directory service (DS): A service that stores and organizes information about a computer network's users and network shares, and that allows network administrators to manage users' access to the shares. See also Active Directory.

Domain Name System (DNS): A hierarchical, distributed database that contains mappings of domain names (1) to various types of data, such as IP addresses. DNS enables the location of computers and services by user-friendly names, and it also enables the discovery of other information stored in the database.

dual-tone multi-frequency (DTMF): In telephony systems, a signaling system in which each digit is associated with two specific frequencies. This system typically is associated with touch-tone keypads for telephones.

encryption: In cryptography, the process of obscuring information to make it unreadable without special knowledge.

endpoint: A device that is connected to a computer network.

Extensible Message and Presence Protocol (XMPP): An application profile of XML that enables the near-real-time exchange of structured yet extensible data between any two or more network entities.

fully qualified domain name (FQDN): In Active Directory, a fully qualified domain name (FQDN) that identifies a domain.

Globally Routable User Agent URI (GRUU): A URI that identifies a user agent and is globally routable. A URI possesses a GRUU property if it is useable by any user agent client (UAC) that is connected to the Internet, routable to a specific user agent instance, and long-lived.

in-band provisioning: A process in which a protocol client obtains configuration information from a protocol server.

Interactive Connectivity Establishment (ICE): A methodology that was established by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) to facilitate the traversal of network address translation (NAT) by media.

Internet Information Services (IIS): The services provided in Windows implementation that support web server functionality. IIS consists of a collection of standard Internet protocol servers such as HTTP and FTP in addition to common infrastructures that are used by other Microsoft Internet protocol servers such as SMTP, NNTP, and so on. IIS has been part of the Windows operating system in some versions and a separate install package in others. IIS version 5.0 shipped as part of Windows 2000 operating system, IIS version 5.1 as part of Windows XP operating system, IIS version 6.0 as part of Windows Server 2003 operating system, and IIS version 7.0 as part of Windows Vista operating system and Windows Server 2008 operating system.

INVITE: A Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) method that is used to invite a user or a service to participate in a session.

Kerberos: An authentication system that enables two parties to exchange private information across an otherwise open network by assigning a unique key (called a ticket) to each user that logs on to the network and then embedding these tickets into messages sent by the users. For more information, see [MS-KILE].

network address translation (NAT): The process of converting between IP addresses used within an intranet, or other private network, and Internet IP addresses.

NT LAN Manager (NTLM) Authentication Protocol: A protocol using a challenge-response mechanism for authentication in which clients are able to verify their identities without sending a password to the server. It consists of three messages, commonly referred to as Type 1 (negotiation), Type 2 (challenge) and Type 3 (authentication). For more information, see [MS-NLMP].

private branch exchange (PBX): A server-based telephony solution that services a specific organization or office.

public switched telephone network (PSTN): Public switched telephone network is the voice-oriented public switched telephone network. It is circuit-switched, as opposed to the packet-switched networks.

Quality of Experience (QoE): A subjective measure of a user's experiences with a media service.

Real-Time Transport Control Protocol (RTCP): A network transport protocol that enables monitoring of Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP) data delivery and provides minimal control and identification functionality, as described in [RFC3550].

Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP): A network transport protocol that provides end-to-end transport functions that are suitable for applications that transmit real-time data, such as audio and video, as described in [RFC3550].

Secure Sockets Layer (SSL): A security protocol that supports confidentiality and integrity of messages in client and server applications that communicate over open networks. SSL uses two keys to encrypt data-a public key known to everyone and a private or secret key known only to the recipient of the message. SSL supports server and, optionally, client authentication using X.509 certificates. For more information, see [X509]. The SSL protocol is precursor to Transport Layer Security (TLS). The TLS version 1.0 specification is based on SSL version 3.0 [SSL3].

server: A replicating machine that sends replicated files to a partner (client). The term "server" refers to the machine acting in response to requests from partners that want to receive replicated files.

Session Initiation Protocol (SIP): An application-layer control (signaling) protocol for creating, modifying, and terminating sessions with one or more participants. SIP is defined in [RFC3261].

Simple Traversal of UDP through NAT (STUN): A protocol that enables applications to discover the presence of and types of network address translations (NATs) and firewalls that exist between those applications and the Internet.

Traversal Using Relay NAT (TURN): A protocol that is used to allocate a public IP address and port on a globally reachable server for the purpose of relaying media from one endpoint to another endpoint.

Uniform Resource Locator (URL): A string of characters in a standardized format that identifies a document or resource on the World Wide Web. The format is as specified in [RFC1738].

Voice over IP (VoIP): The use of the Internet Protocol (IP) for transmitting voice communications. VoIP delivers digitized audio in packet form and can be used to transmit over intranets, extranets, and the Internet.

XML: The Extensible Markup Language, as described in [XML1.0].