Pragma Directives and the __Pragma Keyword

Pragma Directives and the __Pragma Keyword

 

Pragma directives specify machine- or operating-specific compiler features. The __pragma keyword, which is specific to the Microsoft compiler, enables you to code pragma directives within macro definitions.


      #pragma token-string
__pragma(token-string)

Each implementation of C and C++ supports some features unique to its host machine or operating system. Some programs, for example, must exercise precise control over the memory areas where data is put or to control the way certain functions receive parameters. The #pragma directives offer a way for each compiler to offer machine- and operating system-specific features while retaining overall compatibility with the C and C++ languages.

Pragmas are machine- or operating system-specific by definition, and are usually different for every compiler. Pragmas can be used in conditional statements, to provide new preprocessor functionality, or to provide implementation-defined information to the compiler.

The token-string is a series of characters that gives a specific compiler instruction and arguments, if any. The number sign (#) must be the first non-white-space character on the line that contains the pragma; white-space characters can separate the number sign and the word "pragma". Following #pragma, write any text that the translator can parse as preprocessing tokens. The argument to #pragma is subject to macro expansion.

If the compiler finds a pragma that it does not recognize, it issues a warning and continues compilation.

The Microsoft C and C++ compilers recognize the following pragmas:

alloc_text

auto_inline

bss_seg

check_stack

code_seg

comment

component

conform1

const_seg

data_seg

deprecated

detect_mismatch

fenv_access

float_control

fp_contract

function

hdrstop

include_alias

init_seg1

inline_depth

inline_recursion

intrinsic

loop1

make_public

managed

message

omp

once

optimize

pack

pointers_to_members1

pop_macro

push_macro

region, endregion

runtime_checks

section

setlocale

strict_gs_check

unmanaged

vtordisp1

warning

1. Supported only by the C++ compiler.

Some pragmas provide the same functionality as compiler options. When a pragma is encountered in source code, it overrides the behavior specified by the compiler option. For example, if you specified /Zp8, you can override this compiler setting for specific sections of the code with pack:

cl /Zp8 ...

<file> - packing is 8
// ...
#pragma pack(push, 1) - packing is now 1
// ...
#pragma pack(pop) - packing is 8
</file>

Microsoft specific

The compiler also supports the __pragma keyword, which has the same functionality as the #pragma directive, but can be used inline in a macro definition. The #pragma directive cannot be used in a macro definition because the compiler interprets the number sign character ('#') in the directive to be the stringizing operator (#).

The following code example demonstrates how the __pragma keyword can be used in a macro. This code is excerpted from the mfcdual.h header in the ACDUAL sample in "Compiler COM Support Samples":

#define CATCH_ALL_DUAL \
CATCH(COleException, e) \
{ \
_hr = e->m_sc; \
} \
AND_CATCH_ALL(e) \
{ \
__pragma(warning(push)) \
__pragma(warning(disable:6246)) /*disable _ctlState prefast warning*/ \
AFX_MANAGE_STATE(pThis->m_pModuleState); \
__pragma(warning(pop)) \
_hr = DualHandleException(_riidSource, e); \
} \
END_CATCH_ALL \
return _hr; \

End Microsoft specific

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