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game: An application that uses a DirectPlay protocol to communicate between computers.

garbage collection: The process of identifying logically deleted objects (also known as tombstones) and link values that have passed their tombstone lifetime and then permanently removing these objects from a naming context (NC) replica. garbage collection does not generate replication traffic.

GC: See global catalog (GC).

GC server: See Global Catalog Server.

Generic Security Services (GSS): An Internet standard (as specified in [RFC2743]) for providing security services to applications. It consists of an application programming interface (GSS-API) set, as well as standards that describe the structure of the security data.

ghosting: Custom client behavior where file contents are downloaded lazily in response to applications accessing files.

global catalog (GC): A unified partial view of multiple naming contexts (NCs) in a distributed partitioned directory. The Active Directory's directory service GC is implemented by GC servers.

global catalog server: A domain controller (DC) containing a naming context (NC) replica (one full, the rest partial) for each domain naming context in the forest.

global group: Also called domain global group. An Active Directory group that can appear in access control lists (ACLs) anywhere in the forest, and can contain other global groups and users from its own domain. Universal groups can contain domain global groups.

global version sequence number (GVSN): A pair of numbers that includes the machine identifier and the version sequence number (VSN). While two machines might assign the same VSN, because they have different machine identifiers, the associated GVSNs differ. A GVSN is used to identify a unique version of a unique resource. In other words, no two different resources are ever assigned the same GVSN, and no two different updates to the same resource are ever assigned the same GVSN.

globally unique identifier (GUID): A term used interchangeably with universally unique identifier (UUID) in Microsoft protocol technical documents (TDs). Interchanging the usage of these terms does not imply or require a specific algorithm or mechanism to generate the value. Specifically, the use of this term does not imply or require that the algorithms specified in [RFC4122] or [C706] must be used for generating the GUID. See also universally unique identifier (UUID).

Graphics Device Interface (GDI): A Windows API, supported on 16-bit and 32-bit versions of the operating system, which supports graphics operations and image manipulation on logical graphics objects.

Graphics Device Interface, Extended (GDI+): A Windows API, supported on 32-bit and 64-bit versions of the operating system, which extends GDI to include support for Bezier curves, gradient brushes, image effects, and EMF+ metafiles.

group: A collection of objects that can be treated as a whole.

group object: (1) A database object that represents a collection of user and group objects and has a security identifier (SID) value.

(2) In Active Directory, a group object has an object class group. A group has a forward link attribute member; the values of this attribute either represent elements of the group (for example, objects of class user or computer) or subsets of the group (objects of class group). The back link attribute memberOf enables navigation from group members to the groups containing them. Some groups represent groups of security principals and some do not and are, for instance, used to represent e-mail distribution lists.

Group Policy: A mechanism that allows one to specify managed configurations for users and computers in an Active Directory service environment.

Group Policy extension: A protocol mechanism that extends the basic capability of the Group Policy protocol as specified in [MS-GPOL].

Group Policy object (GPO): A collection of administrator-defined specifications of the policy settings that can be applied to groups of computers in a domain. Each GPO includes two elements: an object that resides in the Active Directory for the domain, and a corresponding file system subdirectory that resides on the sysvolDFS share of the Group Policy server for the domain.

Group Policy object (GPO) container version: A Group Policy object (GPO) version stored in the Active Directory portion of the GPO.

Group Policy object (GPO) distinguished name (DN): A Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) distinguished name (DN) for an Active Directory object of object class groupPolicyContainer. All such object paths will be paths of the form "LDAP://<gpo guid>,CN=policies,CN=system,<rootdse>" where <rootdse> is the root DN path of the Active Directory domain and <gpo guid> is a Group Policy object (GPO) GUID.

Group Policy object (GPO) file system version: A Group Policy object (GPO) version stored in the file system portion of the GPO.

Group Policy object (GPO) GUID: A curly braced GUID string that uniquely identifies a Group Policy object (GPO).

Group Policy object (GPO) path: A domain-based Distributed File System (DFS) path for a directory on the server that is accessible through the DFS/SMB protocols. This path will always be a Universal Naming Convention (UNC) path of the form: "\\<dns domain name>\sysvol\<dns domain name>\policies\<gpo guid>", where <dns domain name> is the DNS domain name of the domain and <gpo guid> is a Group Policy object (GPO) GUID.

Group Policy object (GPO) version: A version number that combines the user and machine Group Policy object (GPO) versions as one 32-bit quantity. The upper 16 bits of the integer are the user GPO version and the bottom 16 bits of the integer are the machine GPO version.

Group Policy server: A server holding a database of Group Policy objects (GPOs) that can be retrieved by other machines.

guest account: A security account available to users who do not have an account on the computer.

GUID: See globally unique identifier (GUID).

GUID partitioning table (GPT): A disk-partitioning scheme that is used by the Extensible Firmware Interface (EFI). GPT offers more advantages than master boot record (MBR) partitioning because it allows up to 128 partitions per disk, provides support for volumes up to 18 exabytes in size, allows primary and backup partition tables for redundancy, and supports unique disk and partition IDs through the use of Globally Unique Identifiers (GUIDs). Disks with GPT schemes are referred to as GPT disks.

GUID partitioning table (GPT) disk: A disk with GUID partitioning table (GPT) schemes.

GUID-based DNS name: The DNS name of a domain controller (DC), constructed by concatenating the dashed string representation of the objectGUID of the DC's nTDSDSA object, the string "._msdcs.", and the syntactic transformation of the root domain's distinguished name (DN) to a DNS name.

GUIDString: A Globally Unique Identifier (GUID) in the form of a null-terminated ASCII or Unicode string, consisting of one group of 8 hexadecimal digits, followed by three groups of 4 hexadecimal digits each, followed by one group of 12 hexadecimal digits. It is the standard representation of a GUID as defined in [RFC4122] section 3. For example, "6B29FC40-CA47-1067-B31D-00DD010662DA". Unlike a Curly Braced GUID string, a GUIDString is not enclosed in braces.

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