1.1 Glossary

This document uses the following terms:

Active Directory: The Windows implementation of a general-purpose directory service, which uses LDAP as its primary access protocol. Active Directory stores information about a variety of objects in the network such as user accounts, computer accounts, groups, and all related credential information used by Kerberos [MS-KILE]. Active Directory is either deployed as Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) or Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS), which are both described in [MS-ADOD]: Active Directory Protocols Overview.

Advanced Encryption Standard (AES): A block cipher that supersedes the Data Encryption Standard (DES). AES can be used to protect electronic data. The AES algorithm can be used to encrypt (encipher) and decrypt (decipher) information. Encryption converts data to an unintelligible form called ciphertext; decrypting the ciphertext converts the data back into its original form, called plaintext. AES is used in symmetric-key cryptography, meaning that the same key is used for the encryption and decryption operations. It is also a block cipher, meaning that it operates on fixed-size blocks of plaintext and ciphertext, and requires the size of the plaintext as well as the ciphertext to be an exact multiple of this block size. AES is also known as the Rijndael symmetric encryption algorithm [FIPS197].

ASCII: The American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) is an 8-bit character-encoding scheme based on the English alphabet. ASCII codes represent text in computers, communications equipment, and other devices that work with text. ASCII refers to a single 8-bit ASCII character or an array of 8-bit ASCII characters with the high bit of each character set to zero.

certificate: As used in this document, certificates are expressed in [XRML] section 1.2.

certificate chain: A sequence of certificates, where each certificate in the sequence is signed by the subsequent certificate. The last certificate in the chain is normally a self-signed certificate.

certification authority (CA): A third party that issues public key certificates. Certificates serve to bind public keys to a user identity. Each user and certification authority (CA) can decide whether to trust another user or CA for a specific purpose, and whether this trust should be transitive. For more information, see [RFC3280].

client licensor certificate (CLC) chain: An XrML 1.2 certificate chain that contains an asymmetric signing key pair issued to a user account by an RMS publishing service and binds that user account to a specific computer. The CLC grants the role of a user who can publish protected content.

cloud service: A set of one or more publicly available services that Microsoft operates.

configuration naming context (config NC): A specific type of naming context (NC), or an instance of that type, that contains configuration information. In Active Directory, a single config NC is shared among all domain controllers (DCs) in the forest. A config NC cannot contain security principal objects.

consumer: The user who uses protected content.

content key: The symmetric key used to encrypt content.

Coordinated Universal Time (UTC): A high-precision atomic time standard that approximately tracks Universal Time (UT). It is the basis for legal, civil time all over the Earth. Time zones around the world are expressed as positive and negative offsets from UTC. In this role, it is also referred to as Zulu time (Z) and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). In these specifications, all references to UTC refer to the time at UTC-0 (or GMT).

creator: The user who creates protected content.

Data Encryption Standard (DES): A specification for encryption of computer data that uses a 56-bit key developed by IBM and adopted by the U.S. government as a standard in 1976. For more information see [FIPS46-3].

domain: A set of users and computers sharing a common namespace and management infrastructure. At least one computer member of the set must act as a domain controller (DC) and host a member list that identifies all members of the domain, as well as optionally hosting the Active Directory service. The domain controller provides authentication of members, creating a unit of trust for its members. Each domain has an identifier that is shared among its members. For more information, see [MS-AUTHSOD] section and [MS-ADTS].

domain account: A stored set of attributes representing a principal used to authenticate a user or machine to an Active Directory domain.

endpoint: A network-specific address of a remote procedure call (RPC) server process for remote procedure calls. The actual name and type of the endpoint depends on the RPC protocol sequence that is being used. For example, for RPC over TCP (RPC Protocol Sequence ncacn_ip_tcp), an endpoint might be TCP port 1025. For RPC over Server Message Block (RPC Protocol Sequence ncacn_np), an endpoint might be the name of a named pipe. For more information, see [C706].

forest: One or more domains that share a common schema and trust each other transitively. An organization can have multiple forests. A forest establishes the security and administrative boundary for all the objects that reside within the domains that belong to the forest. In contrast, a domain establishes the administrative boundary for managing objects, such as users, groups, and computers. In addition, each domain has individual security policies and trust relationships with other domains.

fully qualified domain name (FQDN): An unambiguous domain name that gives an absolute location in the Domain Name System's (DNS) hierarchy tree, as defined in [RFC1035] section 3.1 and [RFC2181] section 11.

globally unique identifier (GUID): A term used interchangeably with universally unique identifier (UUID) in Microsoft protocol technical documents (TDs). Interchanging the usage of these terms does not imply or require a specific algorithm or mechanism to generate the value. Specifically, the use of this term does not imply or require that the algorithms described in [RFC4122] or [C706] must be used for generating the GUID. See also universally unique identifier (UUID).

hardware ID (HID): A string usually derived from a fingerprint of an individual computer. The HID is an identifier for a computer.

hash: A fixed-size result that is obtained by applying a one-way mathematical function, which is sometimes referred to as a hash algorithm, to an arbitrary amount of data. If the input data changes, the hash also changes. The hash can be used in many operations, including authentication and digital signing.

language code identifier (LCID): A 32-bit number that identifies the user interface human language dialect or variation that is supported by an application or a client computer.

license: An XrML1.2 document that describes usage policy for protected content.

license chain: Similar to a certificate chain, but for a license.

Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP): The primary access protocol for Active Directory. Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) is an industry-standard protocol, established by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), which allows users to query and update information in a directory service (DS), as described in [MS-ADTS]. The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol can be either version 2 [RFC1777] or version 3 [RFC3377].

little-endian: Multiple-byte values that are byte-ordered with the least significant byte stored in the memory location with the lowest address.

NT LAN Manager (NTLM): An authentication protocol that is based on a challenge-response sequence for authentication. For more information, see [MS-NLMP].

NT LAN Manager (NTLM) Authentication Protocol: A protocol using a challenge-response mechanism for authentication in which clients are able to verify their identities without sending a password to the server. It consists of three messages, commonly referred to as Type 1 (negotiation), Type 2 (challenge) and Type 3 (authentication). For more information, see [MS-NLMP].

offline publishing: The process of creating protected content and signing the associated publishing license using a previously acquired CLC.

online publishing: The process of creating protected content and contacting a server to have the publishing license signed.

Passport Unique ID (PUID): A unique user name associated with a Microsoft Passport account.

policy: The set of rules that govern the interaction between a subject and an object or resource.

protected content: Any content or information (file, email) that has an RMS usage policy assigned to it, and is encrypted according to that policy. Also known as "Protected Information".

publishing license: An XrML 1.2 license that defines the usage policy for protected content and contains the content key with which that content is encrypted. The usage policy identifies all authorized users and the actions that they are authorized to take with the content, in addition to any usage conditions. The publishing license tells a server which usage policies apply to a specific piece of content and grants a server the right to issue use licenses (ULs) based on that policy. The publishing license is created when content is protected. Also referred to as "Issuance License (IL)."

publishing license (PL): An XrML 1.2 license that defines usage policy for protected content and contains the content key with which that content is encrypted. The usage policy identifies all authorized users and the actions they are authorized to take with the content, along with any conditions on that usage. The publishing license tells the server what usage policies apply to a given piece of content and grants the server the right to issue use licenses (ULs) based on that policy. The PL is created when content is protected. Also known as an Issuance License (IL).

rights policy template: An XrML 1.2 document that contains a predefined usage policy that is used to create the PL when content is protected. Conceptually, a rights policy template (or "template") is a blueprint for a PL, identifying authorized users and the actions they are authorized to take with the content (along with any conditions on that usage). Unlike a PL, a template does not contain a content key or information about the content owner. The content key and information about the content owner are required to be added when the PL for a given piece is created from the template. End users can use a template when protecting a document instead of defining the specifics of the usage policy themselves. When a document is published using a template, the template is used to generate the PL.

RMS account certificate (RAC): An XrML 1.2 certificate chain that contains an asymmetric encryption key pair that is issued to a user account by an RMS Certification Service. The RAC binds that user account to a specific computer. The RAC represents the identity of a user who can access protected content. Also known as a Group Identity Certificate (GIC).

security identifier (SID): An identifier for security principals that is used to identify an account or a group. Conceptually, the SID is composed of an account authority portion (typically a domain) and a smaller integer representing an identity relative to the account authority, termed the relative identifier (RID). The SID format is specified in [MS-DTYP] section 2.4.2; a string representation of SIDs is specified in [MS-DTYP] section 2.4.2 and [MS-AZOD] section

security processor: A trusted component on the client machine that enforces usage policy. It has exclusive access to the security processor certificate (SPC) private key.

security processor certificate (SPC): An XrML 1.2 certificate chain generated during activation that contains the public key corresponding to the SPC private key. The SPC grants the role of a machine that can be used for working with protected content.

security processor certificate (SPC) private key: A unique private key that is generated at activation time and issued to the machine, either by self-activation or by calling the Activate method.

server licensor certificate (SLC): An XrML 1.2 certificate that contains a public key issued to an RMS server by an RMS cloud service (RMS 1.0, RMS 1.0 SP1, and RMS 1.0 SP2) or Self Enrollment (RMS 2.0). The RMS client uses the RMS server's public key to encrypt the usage policy and content key in a publish license.

service connection point (SCP): An object stored in Active Directory that specifies the location of an RMS server.

SHA-1: An algorithm that generates a 160-bit hash value from an arbitrary amount of input data, as described in [RFC3174]. SHA-1 is used with the Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA) in the Digital Signature Standard (DSS), in addition to other algorithms and standards.

SHA-256: An algorithm that generates a 256-bit hash value from an arbitrary amount of input data, as described in [FIPS180-2].

SOAP fault: A container for error and status information within a SOAP message. See [SOAP1.2-1/2007] section 5.4 for more information.

SOAP fault code: The algorithmic mechanism for identifying a SOAP fault. See [SOAP1.2-1/2007] section 5.6 for more information.

Stock Keeping Unit (SKU): A unique code that refers to a particular manufactured object or source of revenue. A SKU can refer to a retail product (software in a box that is sold through a channel), a subscription program (such as MSDN), or an online service (such as MSN).

Uniform Resource Locator (URL): A string of characters in a standardized format that identifies a document or resource on the World Wide Web. The format is as specified in [RFC1738].

use license (UL): An XrML 1.2 license that authorizes a user to access a given protected content file and describes the usage policies that apply. Also known as an "End-User License (EUL)".

XrML: The eXtensible rights Markup Language [XRML] is a general-purpose, XML-based specification grammar for expressing rights and conditions associated with digital content, services, or any digital resource.

MAY, SHOULD, MUST, SHOULD NOT, MUST NOT: These terms (in all caps) are used as defined in [RFC2119]. All statements of optional behavior use either MAY, SHOULD, or SHOULD NOT.