11 I

IDL: See Interface Definition Language.

IdTable: A table of File Replication Service (FRS) state information that contains an entry with version and identity information for each file and folder in the replica tree. It is used to keep track of all files in the replica set and their history.

Image Color Management (ICM): Technology that ensures that a color image, graphic, or text object is rendered as closely as possible to its original intent on any device despite differences in imaging technologies and color capabilities between devices.

immediate error cause: An error in a protocol layer within a software agent that prevents the successful completion of a task in the same or different protocol layer/software agent. Any error resulting from such failure is also said to be caused by the immediate error cause.

impersonation: The ability of an operating system process or thread to run temporarily in the security context of a specific caller and to gain authorized access to resources using that identity.

inbound: The network traffic flowing from the client to the server.

inbound connection: For a given replica member, a component of the NTFRS member object in Active Directory that identifies inbound partners. An inbound connection exists for each inbound partner.

inbound log: A queue storing pending change orders to be processed. As entries in the queue are processed, acknowledgments are sent to the inbound partners.

inbound partner: The partner that sends out change orders, files, and folders.

inbound trust: A state in which the trusted domain trusts the primary domain to perform operations such as name lookups and authentication.

incoming authentication: A mode in which each party (the reference party) verifies the identity of the other party, as specified in [RFC3748] section 7.2.1, but not vice-versa.

INF file: A file providing Windows Setup with the information required to set up a device, such as a list of valid logical configurations for the device and the names of driver files associated with the device.

information level: A number used to identify the volume, file, or device information being requested by a client. Corresponding to each information level, the server returns a specific structure to the client that contains different information in the response.

inheritance: See object class inheritance.

initial sync: The process that a new member to the replica set has to go through before it is allowed to synchronize with its outbound partners. Also called vvjoin.

initiator: The party that sends the first message of an Internet Key Exchange (IKE).

inner EAP method: An Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) method that is tunneled within another EAP method.

input method editor (IME): A process that maps keyboard input to phonetic components (or other language elements) that are specific to a selected language. IMEs are typically used with languages for which conventional keyboard representation is difficult or impossible. For example, East Asian languages are made up of thousands of distinct characters, which makes it impossible to show all of the characters on a single keyboard. To facilitate composition, the IME converts keystrokes into the characters of the target language (such as Japanese Katakana or Simplified Chinese).

in-site: In-site targets. Two or more targets sharing the same namespace as a client.

installation files: Files referenced in the metadata of a software installation package. Installation files are used to install the software described by the software installation package on client computers.

Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) bus: A standard electronic interface used between a computer motherboard's bus and the computer's disk storage devices.

interactive logon: A software method in which the account information and credentials input by the user interactively are authenticated by a server or domain controller (DC).

interface: (1) A specification in a Component Object Model (COM) server that describes how to access the methods of a class. For more information, see [MS-DCOM].

(2) A group of related function prototypes in a specific order, analogous to a C++ virtual interface. Multiple objects, of different object class, may implement the same interface. A derived interface may be created by adding methods after the end of an existing interface. In the Distributed Component Object Model (DCOM), all interfaces initially derive from IUnknown.

Interface Definition Language (IDL): The International Standards Organization (ISO) standard language for specifying the interface for remote procedure calls. For more information, see [C706-Ch4InterfaceDef].

interface identifier (IID): A GUID that identifies an interface.

interface pointer: A pointer to an interface that is implemented by an [MS-DCOM] object.

interface pointer identifier (IPID): A 128-bit number that uniquely identifies an interface on an object within an object exporter.

Internet host name: The name of a host as defined in [RFC1123] section 2.1, with the extensions described in [MS-HNDS].

Internet Key Exchange (IKE): The protocol that is used to negotiate and provide authenticated keying material for security associations (SAs) in a protected manner. For more information, see [RFC2409].

Internet Protocol security (IPsec): A framework of open standards for ensuring private, secure communications over Internet Protocol (IP) networks through the use of cryptographic security services. IPsec supports network-level peer authentication, data origin authentication, data integrity, data confidentiality (encryption), and replay protection. The Microsoft implementation of IPsec is based on standards developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) IPsec working group.

Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4): An Internet protocol that has 32-bit source and destination addresses. IPv4 is the predecessor of IPv6.

Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6): A revised version of the Internet Protocol (IP) designed to address growth on the Internet. Improvements include a 128-bit IP address size, expanded routing capabilities, and support for authentication and privacy.

Internet SCSI (iSCSI): For terms related to iSCSI, see [RFC3720].

Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP): A cryptographic protocol specified in [RFC2408] that defines procedures and packet formats to establish, negotiate, modify and delete security associations (SAs). It forms the basis of the Internet Key Exchange (IKE) protocol, as specified in [RFC2409].

Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX): A protocol maintained by Novell's NetWare product that provides connectionless datagram delivery of messages. IPX is based on Xerox Corporation's Internetwork Packet protocol, XNS.

intersite topology generator (ISTG): A domain controller (DC) within a given site that computes a naming context (NC) replica graph for each NC replica on any DC in its site. This DC creates, updates, and deletes corresponding nTDSConnectionobjects for edges directed from NC replicas in other sites to NC replicas in its site.

intrinsic event: An event that defines an event generated by the implementation itself.

invocation ID: A unique number that identifies the version of the directory database that is running on the domain controller (DC). Replication partners use the invocation ID and an update sequence number (USN) to determine the most current changes for replication.

IPsec administrative plug-in: The Internet Protocol security (IPsec) extension plug-in that operates as part of the group policy configuration tool that reads and writes IPsec policy using the Group Policy: IP Security (IPsec) Protocol Extension [MS-GPIPSEC].

IPsec client-side plug-in: The Internet Protocol security (IPsec) extension plug-in that operates on the client machine to retrieve the policy using the Group Policy: IP Security (IPsec) Protocol Extension [MS-GPIPSEC].

IPsec component: The implementation of the Internet Protocol security (IPsec)/Internet Key Exchange (IKE) functionality on a client machine. This is the component that the Group Policy: IP Security (IPsec) Protocol Extension [MS-GPIPSEC] configures with the IPsec/IKE policy that is transferred as part of the protocol.

IPsec Group Policy Extension: The group policy extension protocol that transfers Internet Protocol security (IPsec)/Internet Key Exchange (IKE) configuration information (IKE settings, IPsec framing configuration, and so on).

IPv4: See Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4).

IPv4 address in string format: A string representation of an IPv4 address in dotted-decimal notation, as specified in [RFC1123] section 2.1.

IPv6: See Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6).

IPv6 address in string format: A string representation of an IPv6 address as specified in [RFC4291] section 2.2.

ISAKMP payload: A modular building block for constructing ISAKMP messages. A payload is used to transfer information such as security association (SA) data, or key generation and authentication data. The presence and order of payloads in a packet is defined by and dependent upon the type of exchange specified in the ISAKMP header of the ISAKMP message. For more information, see [RFC2408] section 4.1.

iSCSI initiator: For terms related to iSCSI initiator, see [RFC3720].

iSCSI initiator adapter: For terms related to iSCSI initiator adapter, see [RFC3720].

iSCSI initiator portal: For terms related to iSCSI initiator portal, see [RFC3720].

iSCSI session: For terms related to iSCSI session, see [RFC3720].

ISO/OSI reference model: The International Organization for Standardization Open Systems Interconnection (ISO/OSI) reference model is a layered architecture (plan) that standardizes levels of service and types of interaction for computers that are exchanging information through a communications network. Also called the OSI reference model.

issuer name: The name of the certificate authority (CA) that signed and issued a certificate. The name is an X.509 format name, as specified in [X509].

ISTG: See intersite topology generator (ISTG).