Appendix C Selected International Punctuation Symbols

This appendix consists of one table, which lists punctuation symbols used in various countries and describes typical usage.

Selected International Punctuation Symbols

Symbol Description Languages Usage
„ " Quotation marks Czech, German Commonly used in both.
„ " Quotation marks, low-high pair Danish, Hungarian, Polish, Russian Used in Russian to mark a quotation within a quotation Standard in Hungarian and Polish..
“ ” Smart quotation marks Dutch, English, Italian, Spanish Commonly used in all.
" " Quotation marks Danish, Finnish, Norwegian, Swedish Most commonly used quotation marks in Danish, Finnish, and Swedish. Used occasionally in Norwegian..
‘ ’ Single smart quotation marks Dutch, English, Italian, Spanish Used in English, Spanish, and Italian to mark a quotation within a quotation. Standard in Dutch
' ' Single quotation marks Danish, Finnish, Hungarian, Norwegian, Swedish Used in Danish, Finnish, Norwegian, and Swedish to mark a quotation within a quotation. Used in Hungarian in philological texts.
" " Straight quotation marks Danish, Dutch, English, Finnish, Norwegian, Swedish Occasionally used in Swedish instead of standard single smart quotation marks. Occasionally used in Finnish instead of quotation marks.
' ' Single straight quotation marks Danish, Dutch, Finnish, Norwegian, Swedish Used to mark a quotation within a quotation.
� � Chevron quotation marks French, Greek, Italian, Norwegian, Russian, Spanish Used in Italian as an alternative to smart quotation marks.
� � Chevron quotation marks Danish, German, Hungarian Used in Hungarian to mark a quotation within a quotation. Occasionally used in Danish
� � Chevron quotation marks Finnish, Swedish Occasionally used in both languages.
Left and right quotation marks Chinese Standard.
or Ideographic quotation marks Chinese, Japanese Standard.
; Question mark Greek Standard.
Arabic question mark Arabic Standard.
� ? Question marks Spanish Standard. Used as a pair.
� ! Exclamation marks Spanish Standard. Used as a pair.
. Semicolon Greek Standard.
Arabic semicolon Arabic Standard.
– En dash Most European languages Some languages, such as Czech, Danish, Dutch, and Swedish, use the en dash instead of the em dash. Spanish uses the en dash for hyphenated words and compound terms.
— Em dash All European languages except Danish and Swedish The en dash and the em dash are not typically used together in a single document. In Spanish, the em dash is some times used for incidental clauses or text in dialog boxes.
Ideographic comma Chinese, Japanese Standard in both.
Arabic comma Arabic Standard.
Ideographic period Chinese, Japanese Standard in both.
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