Was this page helpful?
Your feedback about this content is important. Let us know what you think.
Additional feedback?
1500 characters remaining
Export (0) Print
Expand All
Important This document may not represent best practices for current development, links to downloads and other resources may no longer be valid. Current recommended version can be found here.

ref Function

Updated: December 2008

Constructs a reference_wrapper from an argument.

template<class Ty>
    reference_wrapper<Ty> ref(Ty& arg);
template<class Ty>
    reference_wrapper<Ty> ref(reference_wrapper<Ty>& arg);

A reference to arg; specifically, reference_wrapper<Ty>(arg).

The following example defines two functions: one bound to a string variable, the other bound to a reference of the string variable computed by a call to ref. When the value of the variable changes, the first function continues to use the old value and the second function uses the new value.

#include <algorithm>
#include <functional>
#include <iostream>
#include <iterator>
#include <ostream>
#include <string>
#include <vector>
using namespace std;
using namespace std::tr1;
using namespace std::tr1::placeholders;

bool shorter_than(const string& l, const string& r) {
    return l.size() < r.size();
}

int main() {
    vector<string> v_original;
    v_original.push_back("tiger");
    v_original.push_back("cat");
    v_original.push_back("lion");
    v_original.push_back("cougar");

    copy(v_original.begin(), v_original.end(), ostream_iterator<string>(cout, " "));
    cout << endl;

    string s("meow");

    function<bool (const string&)> f = bind(shorter_than, _1, s);
    function<bool (const string&)> f_ref = bind(shorter_than, _1, ref(s));

    vector<string> v;

    // Remove elements that are shorter than s ("meow")

    v = v_original;
    v.erase(remove_if(v.begin(), v.end(), f), v.end());

    copy(v.begin(), v.end(), ostream_iterator<string>(cout, " "));
    cout << endl;

    // Now change the value of s.
    // f_ref, which is bound to ref(s), will use the
    // new value, while f is still bound to the old value.

    s = "kitty";

    // Remove elements that are shorter than "meow" (f is bound to old value of s)

    v = v_original;
    v.erase(remove_if(v.begin(), v.end(), f), v.end());

    copy(v.begin(), v.end(), ostream_iterator<string>(cout, " "));
    cout << endl;

    // Remove elements that are shorter than "kitty" (f_ref is bound to ref(s))

    v = v_original;
    v.erase(remove_if(v.begin(), v.end(), f_ref), v.end());

    copy(v.begin(), v.end(), ostream_iterator<string>(cout, " "));
    cout << endl;
}
tiger cat lion cougar tiger lion cougar tiger lion cougar tiger cougar

Header: <functional>

Namespace: std::tr1

Date

History

Reason

December 2008

Revised.

Customer feedback.

Community Additions

ADD
Show:
© 2015 Microsoft