Registering for Application Recovery

This section provides details on implementing a recovery feature in your application. You should consider implementing this feature to handle the following cases:

Recovering when an application experiences an unhandled exception or stops responding

To register a recovery callback, call the RegisterApplicationRecoveryCallback function. Windows Error Reporting (WER) calls your recovery callback before the application exits due to an unhandled exception or the application not responding.

You use the recovery callback to try to save data and state information before the application terminates. You could then use the saved data and state information when the application is restarted.

During the recovery process, you must call the ApplicationRecoveryInProgress function within the specified ping interval; otherwise, the recovery process is terminated. Calling ApplicationRecoveryInProgress lets WER know that you are still actively recovering data. When the recovery process is complete, call the ApplicationRecoveryFinished function. Note that the ApplicationRecoveryFinished function should be the last call you make before exiting because the function immediately terminates the application.

You should consider periodically saving temporary copies of the data and state information during the normal course of the application process. Periodically saving the data may save time in the recovery process.

Saving data and application state when application is being closed due to a software update

If a Windows application can be updated, the application should also process the WM_QUERYENDSESSION and WM_ENDSESSION messages. The installer sends these messages when the installer needs the application to shutdown in order to complete the installation or when a reboot is required to complete the installation. Note that in this case, the application has less time to perform recovery. For example, the application must respond to each message within five seconds.

For console applications that could be updated, you should consider handling CTRL_C_EVENT notifications. For an example, see Registering for Application Restart. The installer sends this notification when it needs the application to shutdown in order to complete the update. The application has 30 seconds to handle the notification.

The following example shows how to register for recovery, a simple recovery callback implementation, and how to process the WM_QUERYENDSESSION and WM_ENDSESSION messages.


#define UNICODE
#include <windows.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <commctrl.h>
#include <strsafe.h>
#include "recover.h"

#pragma comment(lib, "comctl32.lib") // For common controls
#pragma comment(lib, "user32.lib")

#define RESTART_SWITCH L"/restart"
#define RESTART_SWITCH_LEN 8

HINSTANCE g_hinst;
HWND g_hwnd;
HWND g_hwndStatus;

DWORD g_dwRecordId = 0;

// Prototypes
BOOL CreateWindows(void);
LRESULT CALLBACK WndProc(HWND, UINT, WPARAM, LPARAM);
BOOL InitInstance(LPWSTR pwsCommandLine);
DWORD WINAPI Recover(PVOID pContext);
BOOL IsRestartSelected(void);

// A simple example to show how to use application recovery in a window application.
// For simplicity, the state information (record ID) is passed as part of the command line. 
int APIENTRY wWinMain(
    HINSTANCE hInstance,
    HINSTANCE hPrevInstance,
    LPWSTR    lpCmdLine,
    int       nCmdShow)
{
    MSG msg;

    g_hinst = hInstance;

    if (!CreateWindows())
    {
        return 0;
    }

    if (!InitInstance(lpCmdLine))
    {
        return 0;
    }

    ShowWindow(g_hwnd, nCmdShow);
    UpdateWindow(g_hwnd);

    while (GetMessage(&msg, NULL, 0, 0))
    {
        TranslateMessage(&msg);
        DispatchMessage(&msg);
    }

    return (int)msg.wParam;
}


// Initialize this instance of the application.
BOOL InitInstance(LPWSTR pwsCommandLine)
{
    BOOL fSuccess = TRUE;
    BOOL fIsRestart = FALSE;
    DWORD len = 0;
    LPWSTR pch = NULL;
    WCHAR wsStatusMsg[128];
    //WCHAR wsCommandLine[RESTART_MAX_CMD_LINE];

    if (len = wcslen(pwsCommandLine))
    {
        // Get the restart info from the command line. The command line is 
        // of the form, /restart -r:<RecordId>. The application 
        // is being restarted if the first argument is /restart.
        if (!wcsncmp(RESTART_SWITCH, pwsCommandLine, RESTART_SWITCH_LEN))
        {
            fIsRestart = TRUE;

            pch = pwsCommandLine + len;
            while (*--pch != ':' && pch >= pwsCommandLine)
                ;

            g_dwRecordId = _wtoi(pch+1);
        }
    }

    if (fIsRestart)
    {
        // TODO: Use the record ID to initialize the application.
        RtlZeroMemory(wsStatusMsg, sizeof(wsStatusMsg));
        StringCchPrintf(wsStatusMsg, 128, L"Initializing after restart (record ID is %lu)", g_dwRecordId);
        SetWindowText(g_hwndStatus, wsStatusMsg);
    }
    else
    {
        // This is not a restart, so initialize the application accordingly.
        SetWindowText(g_hwndStatus, L"Initializing application");
    }


    // You could call the RegisterApplicationRestart and 
    // RegisterApplicationRecovery functions here to register for
    // application recovery and restart, but this example uses menu 
    // items to toggle these features on and off for testing purposes.

    //// Register for restart. The command line is updated in the recovery callback.
    //RtlZeroMemory(wsCommandLine, sizeof(wsCommandLine));
    //StringCchPrintf(wsCommandLine, RESTART_MAX_CMD_LINE, L"/restart -r:%lu", dwRecordId);

    //hr = RegisterApplicationRestart(wsCommandLine, RESTART_NO_PATCH | RESTART_NO_REBOOT);
    //if (FAILED(hr))
    //{
    //    // Not failing because the registration failed.
    //    goto cleanup;
    //}

    //// Register the callback that handles recovery when the application
    //// encounters an unhandled exception or becomes unresponsive.
    //hr = RegisterApplicationRecoveryCallback(Recover, g_dwRecordId, RECOVERY_DEFAULT_PING_INTERVAL, 0);
    //if (FAILED(hr))
    //{
    //    // Not failing initialization because the registration failed.
    //    // Consider calling UnregisterApplicationRestart if you must
    //    // have the latest state information.
    //    goto cleanup;
    //}

//cleanup:

    return fSuccess;
}


BOOL CreateWindows(void)
{
    BOOL fSuccess = TRUE;
    WNDCLASSEX wc;
    ATOM atom;
    INITCOMMONCONTROLSEX initctrls;
    RECT rc;

    ZeroMemory(&wc, sizeof(wc));
    wc.cbSize = sizeof(wc);
    wc.lpfnWndProc = WndProc;
    wc.hInstance = g_hinst;
    wc.lpszClassName = L"MainWClass";
    wc.hbrBackground = (HBRUSH)(COLOR_WINDOW+1);
    wc.hCursor = LoadCursor(NULL, IDC_ARROW);
    wc.lpszMenuName    = MAKEINTRESOURCE(IDC_RECOVER);

    atom = RegisterClassEx(&wc);
    g_hwnd = CreateWindowEx(0,
        L"MainWClass",
        L"Testing Application Restart and Recovery",
        WS_OVERLAPPEDWINDOW | WS_CLIPCHILDREN,
        CW_USEDEFAULT, CW_USEDEFAULT, 
        390, 165, 
        NULL,
        NULL,
        g_hinst,
        NULL);

    if (NULL == g_hwnd)
    {
        fSuccess = FALSE;
        goto cleanup;
    }

    initctrls.dwSize = sizeof(initctrls);
    initctrls.dwICC = ICC_BAR_CLASSES;
    InitCommonControlsEx(&initctrls);

    GetClientRect(g_hwnd, &rc);

    g_hwndStatus = CreateWindowEx(0, STATUSCLASSNAME, NULL,
        WS_CHILD | WS_BORDER | WS_VISIBLE,
        rc.left, rc.bottom - 20, rc.right, 20,
        g_hwnd, NULL, g_hinst, NULL);
        
    if (NULL == g_hwndStatus)
    {
        fSuccess = FALSE;
    }

cleanup:

    return fSuccess;
}


LRESULT CALLBACK WndProc(HWND hWnd, UINT message, WPARAM wParam, LPARAM lParam)
{
    int wmId, wmEvent;
    PAINTSTRUCT ps;
    HDC hdc;
    HMENU hMenu;
    MENUITEMINFO miInfo;
    BOOL bChecked = FALSE;
    HRESULT hr = S_OK;
    int* p = NULL;
    ULONG error = ERROR_SUCCESS;
    WCHAR wsCommandLine[RESTART_MAX_CMD_LINE];


    switch (message)
    {
        case WM_COMMAND:
            wmId = LOWORD(wParam);
            wmEvent = HIWORD(wParam);

            // Parse the menu selections:
            switch (wmId)
            {
                // Causes an access violation to test the restart feature,
                // if restart is checked. The application must be running
                // for at least 60 before it can be restarted if an access
                // violation occurs.
                case ID_FILE_CRASH:
                    *p = 5;
                    break;

                // Menu item used to register for restart (checked) and to
                // remove the registration (unchecked). The application must be running
                // for at least 60 seconds before it can be restarted if an access
                // violation occurs (select Crash from the File menu).
                case ID_FILE_RESTART:
                    hMenu = GetMenu(hWnd);
                    if (hMenu)
                    {
                        RtlZeroMemory(&miInfo, sizeof(MENUITEMINFO));
                        miInfo.cbSize = sizeof(MENUITEMINFO);
                        miInfo.fMask = MIIM_STATE;

                        if (GetMenuItemInfo(hMenu, ID_FILE_RESTART, FALSE, &miInfo))
                        {
                            // Toggling Restart to unchecked. Remove restart registration.
                            if ((miInfo.fState & MFS_CHECKED) == MFS_CHECKED)
                            {
                                miInfo.fState &= ~MFS_CHECKED;
                                miInfo.fState |= MFS_UNCHECKED;

                                hr = UnregisterApplicationRestart();
                                if (FAILED(hr))
                                {
                                    // Not failing because removing the registration failed.
                                }
                            }
                            else // Toggling Restart to checked. Register for restart.
                            {
                                miInfo.fState &= ~MFS_UNCHECKED;
                                miInfo.fState |= MFS_CHECKED;

                                // Register for restart. The command line is updated in the recovery callback,
                                // if recovery is selected.
                                RtlZeroMemory(wsCommandLine, sizeof(wsCommandLine));
                                g_dwRecordId += 10; // Incrementing to show different value on restart.
                                StringCchPrintf(wsCommandLine, RESTART_MAX_CMD_LINE, L"/restart -r:%lu", g_dwRecordId);

                                hr = RegisterApplicationRestart(wsCommandLine, RESTART_NO_PATCH | RESTART_NO_REBOOT);
                                if (FAILED(hr))
                                {
                                    // Not failing because the registration failed.
                                }

                                MessageBox(hWnd, L"You must wait 60 seconds before selecting Crash from the\n"
                                    L"File menu to crash the application and test the restart feature.",
                                    L"Registered for restart", 
                                    MB_OK | MB_ICONINFORMATION);
                            }

                            if (!SetMenuItemInfo(hMenu, ID_FILE_RESTART, FALSE, &miInfo))
                            {
                                // Handle error; call GetLastError() to get the error.
                            }
                        }
                    }
                    else
                    {
                        // Handle error; call GetLastError() to get the error.
                    }

                    break;

                // Menu item use to register for recovery (checked) and to
                // remove the registration (unchecked).
                case ID_FILE_RECOVER:
                    hMenu = GetMenu(hWnd);
                    if (hMenu)
                    {
                        RtlZeroMemory(&miInfo, sizeof(MENUITEMINFO));
                        miInfo.cbSize = sizeof(MENUITEMINFO);
                        miInfo.fMask = MIIM_STATE;

                        if (GetMenuItemInfo(hMenu, ID_FILE_RECOVER, FALSE, &miInfo))
                        {
                            if ((miInfo.fState & MFS_CHECKED) == MFS_CHECKED)
                            {
                                miInfo.fState &= ~MFS_CHECKED;
                                miInfo.fState |= MFS_UNCHECKED;

                                hr = UnregisterApplicationRecoveryCallback();
                                if (FAILED(hr))
                                {
                                    // Not failing because removing the registration failed.
                                }
                            }
                            else
                            {
                                miInfo.fState &= ~MFS_UNCHECKED;
                                miInfo.fState |= MFS_CHECKED;

                                hr = RegisterApplicationRecoveryCallback(Recover, &g_dwRecordId, RECOVERY_DEFAULT_PING_INTERVAL, 0);
                                if (FAILED(hr))
                                {
                                    // Not failing because the registration failed.
                                }
                            }

                            if (!SetMenuItemInfo(hMenu, ID_FILE_RECOVER, FALSE, &miInfo))
                            {
                                // Handle the error; call GetLastError() to get the error.
                            }
                        }
                    }
                    else
                    {
                        // Handle error; call GetLastError() to get the error.
                    }

                    break;

                    case IDM_EXIT:
                        DestroyWindow(hWnd);
                    break;

                default:
                    return DefWindowProc(hWnd, message, wParam, lParam);
            }

            break;

        case WM_PAINT:
            hdc = BeginPaint(hWnd, &ps);
            // TODO: Add any drawing code here...
            EndPaint(hWnd, &ps);
            break;

        case WM_DESTROY:
            PostQuitMessage(0);
            break;

        case WM_CLOSE:
            // You could use this message to handle additional recovery 
            // processing if you are unable to finish recovery in the 
            // WM_ENDSESSION message. This is for the application update
            // case only.

            DestroyWindow(hWnd);
            break;

        // The WM_QUERYENDSESSION and WM_ENDSESSION messages are used for 
        // recovery only in the case where the application is being updated.
        // The recovery callback is used instead for the case where the 
        // application becomes unresponsive or encounters an unhandled exception.
        case WM_QUERYENDSESSION:

            // Check the lParam parameter for why the system is asking the application to close.
            // The Restart Manager sets lParam to ENDSESSION_CLOSEAPP when installer needs to 
            // replace files that the application is using.
            if (lParam & ENDSESSION_CLOSEAPP)
            {
                // Consider using EnableWindow to disable the mouse & keyboard input until 
                // receiving the WM_ENDSESSION message.
                        
                // This message is the last opportunity to call the RegisterApplicationRestart
                // function to register to have your application restarted after the update
                // completes. If you have already registered for restart, you can use this 
                // opportunity to update the command line arguments. 
                hr = RegisterApplicationRestart(L"<commandlinearguments>", 0);
                if (FAILED(hr))
                {
                    // Log an event or do some error handling.
                }
                     
                // Typically, applications should respect the user's or system's request and return
                // TRUE to indicate that they are willing to close. If the application is performing
                // a critical operation which cannot be interrupted, such as burning media, then you
                // should return FALSE. If you return FALSE, you should also call the 
                // ShutdownBlockReasonCreate function to specify a reason for blocking the shutdown
                // operation. After the critical operation has completed, call the 
                // ShutdownBlockReasonDestroy function to indicate that the application is now 
                // ready to terminate.

                return TRUE;
            }

            return TRUE;

        case WM_ENDSESSION:

            // You receive this message after receiving the WM_QUERYENDSESSION message. The lParam
            // parameter indicates why the system asked the application to close. The Restart 
            // Manager sets lParam to ENDSESSION_CLOSEAPP when installer needs to replace files 
            // that the application is using. 
            if (lParam & ENDSESSION_CLOSEAPP)
            {
                // You also need to check the value of the wParam parameter. The wParam value 
                // indicates if the application should close or not based on the results of 
                // the query. If the value is TRUE, the application is closing. 
                if (wParam == TRUE)      
                {
                    // You should use this opportunity to save data and state information. 
                }
                else // FALSE, the application is not closing
                {
                    // If you disabled the mouse and keyboard input as suggested in 
                    // the WM_QUERYENDSESSION message, you should call the EnableWindow
                    // function to enable the input.
                 
                    // You could call the RegisterApplicationRestart function to update the
                    // command line as appropriate for your application.
                    hr = RegisterApplicationRestart(L"<commandlinearguments>", 0);
                    if (FAILED(hr))
                    {
                        // Log an event or do some error handling.
                    }
                }
            }
          
            return 0;

        // This example does not show other messages such as WM_PAINT 
        // or WM_DESTROY.

        default:
            return DefWindowProc(hWnd, message, wParam, lParam);
    }

    return 0;
}


// Implement the recovery callback. This callback lets the application
// save state information or data in the event that the application
// encounters an unhandled exception or becomes unresponsive.
DWORD WINAPI Recover(PVOID pContext)
{
    HRESULT hr = S_OK;
    BOOL bCanceled = FALSE;
    DWORD dwRecordId = *(DWORD*)pContext;
    WCHAR wsCommandLine[RESTART_MAX_CMD_LINE];

    // Do recovery work. Save state information.

    // Update the restart command line if restart is requested.
    if (IsRestartSelected())
    {
        RtlZeroMemory(wsCommandLine, sizeof(wsCommandLine));
        StringCchPrintf(wsCommandLine, RESTART_MAX_CMD_LINE, L"/restart -r:%lu", dwRecordId);

        hr = RegisterApplicationRestart(wsCommandLine, RESTART_NO_PATCH | RESTART_NO_REBOOT);
        if (FAILED(hr))
        {
            // Not failing because the registration failed.
            wprintf(L"RegisterApplicationRestart failed with ox%x.\n", hr);
        }
    }

    // You must call the ApplicationRecoveryInProgress function within
    // the specified ping interval or the recovery callback exits.
    // Typically, you would do a block of work, call the function, and repeat.
    ApplicationRecoveryInProgress(&bCanceled);
    if (bCanceled)  
    {
        wprintf(L"Recovery was canceled by the user.\n");
        goto cleanup;
    }

cleanup:

    ApplicationRecoveryFinished((bCanceled) ? FALSE: TRUE);

    return 0;
}

BOOL IsRestartSelected()
{
    BOOL fSelected = FALSE;
    HMENU hMenu;
    MENUITEMINFO miInfo;

    hMenu = GetMenu(g_hwnd);
    if (hMenu)
    {
        RtlZeroMemory(&miInfo, sizeof(MENUITEMINFO));
        miInfo.cbSize = sizeof(MENUITEMINFO);
        miInfo.fMask = MIIM_STATE;

        if (GetMenuItemInfo(hMenu, ID_FILE_RESTART, FALSE, &miInfo))
        {
            if ((miInfo.fState & MFS_CHECKED) == MFS_CHECKED)
                fSelected = TRUE;
        }
    }

    return fSelected;
}


The following is the recover.h include file for the recovery example.


#pragma once

#include "resource.h"


The following is the recover.rc resource file for the recovery example.


// Microsoft Visual C++ generated resource script.
//
#include "resource.h"

#define APSTUDIO_READONLY_SYMBOLS
/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
//
// Generated from the TEXTINCLUDE 2 resource.
//
#define APSTUDIO_HIDDEN_SYMBOLS
#include "windows.h"
#undef APSTUDIO_HIDDEN_SYMBOLS

/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
#undef APSTUDIO_READONLY_SYMBOLS

/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
// English (U.S.) resources

#if !defined(AFX_RESOURCE_DLL) || defined(AFX_TARG_ENU)
#ifdef _WIN32
LANGUAGE LANG_ENGLISH, SUBLANG_ENGLISH_US
#pragma code_page(1252)
#endif //_WIN32


/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
//
// Menu
//

IDC_RECOVER MENU 
BEGIN
    POPUP "&File"
    BEGIN
        MENUITEM "C&rash",                      ID_FILE_CRASH
        MENUITEM "&Restart",                    ID_FILE_RESTART
        MENUITEM "Re&cover",                    ID_FILE_RECOVER
        MENUITEM "E&xit",                       IDM_EXIT
    END
END


#ifdef APSTUDIO_INVOKED
/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
//
// TEXTINCLUDE
//

1 TEXTINCLUDE 
BEGIN
    "resource.h\0"
END

2 TEXTINCLUDE 
BEGIN
    "#define APSTUDIO_HIDDEN_SYMBOLS\r\n"
    "#include ""windows.h""\r\n"
    "#undef APSTUDIO_HIDDEN_SYMBOLS\r\n"
    "\0"
END

3 TEXTINCLUDE 
BEGIN
    "\r\n"
    "\0"
END

#endif    // APSTUDIO_INVOKED

#endif    // English (U.S.) resources
/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

#ifndef APSTUDIO_INVOKED
/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
//
// Generated from the TEXTINCLUDE 3 resource.
//


/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
#endif    // not APSTUDIO_INVOKED


The following is the resource.h include file for the recovery example.


//{{NO_DEPENDENCIES}}
// Microsoft Visual C++ generated include file.
// Used by Recover.rc
//
#define IDS_APP_TITLE                   103
#define IDM_EXIT                        105
#define IDC_RECOVER                     109
#define IDR_MAINFRAME                   128
#define ID_FILE_CRASH                   32771
#define ID_FILE_RESTART                 32772
#define ID_FILE_RECOVER                 32773
#define IDC_STATIC                      -1

// Next default values for new objects
// 
#ifdef APSTUDIO_INVOKED
#ifndef APSTUDIO_READONLY_SYMBOLS
#define _APS_NO_MFC                     1
#define _APS_NEXT_RESOURCE_VALUE        129
#define _APS_NEXT_COMMAND_VALUE         32774
#define _APS_NEXT_CONTROL_VALUE         1000
#define _APS_NEXT_SYMED_VALUE           110
#endif
#endif


 

 

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