SharePoint Server 2007 Administration Model
Microsoft Office SharePoint Server 2007 has a centralized configuration and management model, which includes a configuration database and two new services that automatically propagate and synchronize the centrally stored configuration settings across all of the servers in your server farm. The new configuration and management model allows you to centrally manage your server farm without having to manage farm settings on a server-by-server basis. For example, if you create a Web application on one of your Web servers, the Web application is automatically propagated to all of your Web servers. You no longer have to extend individual Web applications on each of your Web servers.
To facilitate this centralized configuration model, Office SharePoint Server 2007 relies on two new and enhanced services: the Windows SharePoint Services Administration service and the Windows SharePoint Services Timer service. The Windows SharePoint Services Timer service is responsible for running timer jobs that propagate configuration settings across a server farm. The Windows SharePoint Services Administration service works hand-in-hand with the Windows SharePoint Services Timer service and is responsible for carrying out the actual configuration changes on each of the servers in your server farm.
Architecturally, Office SharePoint Server 2007 now has a three-tier administration model that makes it easier for IT organizations to differentiate administrative roles and assign administrative responsibilities.
Tier 1 encompasses all of the administrative features and functionality for centrally managing the server farm. Tier 1 administrative tasks are typically performed by an organization's IT administrators and can include a wide range of tasks such as farm-level resource management tasks, farm-level status checks and monitoring, and farm-level security configuration. For example, a tier 1 administrator might be responsible for creating new Web applications and site collections, managing incoming and outgoing e-mail settings for the farm, and managing server farm topology.
Tier 2 encompasses all of the administrative features and functionality for managing shared services across a server farm. Tier 2 administrative tasks are typically performed by a business unit IT administrator and can include a wide range of management tasks at the service level such as configuring search, indexing, or usage reporting. Tier 2 is relevant only if you are running Office SharePoint Server 2007.
Tier 3 encompasses all of the administrative features and functionality for managing sites within a server farm. Tier 3 administrative tasks are typically performed by a business unit site administrator and can include a wide range of site-specific management tasks such as Web part management, access management, and content management. For example, a tier 3 administrator might be responsible for creating a new list on a site, configuring access permissions for users, and modifying site hierarchy.
Administration Object Model
The following diagram shows the Windows SharePoint Services site architecture in relation to the collections and objects of the Microsoft.SharePoint.Administration and Microsoft.SharePoint namespaces.
The ContentDatabases property of the SPWebApplication class returns an SPContentDatabaseCollection object that represents the collection of content databases used for a Web application. Each SPContentDatabase object provides access to properties of the content database.
The WebServers property of the SPGlobalConfig class returns an SPWebServerCollection object representing the collection of front-end Web servers in the Windows SharePoint Services deployment. Each SPWebServer object provides access to properties of the Web server.
The WebApplications property of the SPWebService class provides access to an SPWebApplicationCollection object that represents all of the Web applications in the SharePoint deployment. Each SPWebApplication object has members that can be used to manage the Web application. The Sites property provides access to the SPSiteCollection object representing the collection of all site collections on the Web application, and the Add method is used to create top-level site collections.
Each SPSite object represents a site collection and has members that can be used to manage the site collection. The AllWebs property provides access to the SPWebCollection object that represents the collection of all sites within the site collection, including the top-level site. The OpenWeb method of the SPSite class returns a specified site.
Each site collection includes any number of SPWeb objects, and each object has members that can be used to manage a site, including its template and theme, but also to access files and folders on the site. The Webs property returns an SPWebCollection object representing all the subsites of a specified site, and the Lists property returns an SPListCollection object representing all the lists in the site.
Each SPList object has members for managing the list or for accessing items in the list. The GetItems method can be used to perform queries that return specific items. The Fields property returns an SPFieldCollection object representing all the fields, or columns, in the list, and the Items property returns an SPListItemCollection object representing all the items, or rows, in the list. Each SPField object has members that contain settings for the field. Each SPListItem object represents a single row in the list.
The following figure shows the Windows SharePoint Services 3.0 Administration object model.
The following figure shows the Windows SharePoint Services 3.0 server farm hierarchical object model.