How to: Detect Whether Two Models Collide

This example demonstrates how to use the BoundingSphere class to check whether two models are colliding.

To check whether two objects are colliding

  1. Track the position of each model as it moves about the game world.
  2. Make a nested loop with the first model's meshes as the outer loop and the second model's meshes as the inner loop.
  3. Inside the loop do these steps.

    1. Get the bounding sphere for the current mesh of the first model and the current mesh of the second model.
    2. Offset the bounding spheres by the current positions of the models.
    3. Check the pairs of bounding spheres for collision by calling the BoundingSphere.Intersects method. If the method returns true, the objects are colliding.
    4. If the models are colliding, break out of the loop.
Bb203906.note(en-US,XNAGameStudio.10).gifNote
For an example of determining a particle's path after it hits a surface, see Vector3.Reflect.
//Game1.cs
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using Microsoft.Xna.Framework;
using Microsoft.Xna.Framework.Audio;
using Microsoft.Xna.Framework.Graphics;
using Microsoft.Xna.Framework.Input;
using Microsoft.Xna.Framework.Storage;
using Microsoft.Xna.Framework.Content;

class Game1 : Microsoft.Xna.Framework.Game
{

    private Matrix view;
    private Matrix proj;

    private GraphicsDeviceManager graphics;
    private ContentManager contentManager;

    private Model sphere;
    private Texture2D sphereTexture;

    // Set the avatar position and rotation variables.
    Vector3 avatarPosition = new Vector3( 0, 0, -22 );
    float avatarYaw;

    // Set the direction the camera points without rotation.
    Vector3 cameraReference = new Vector3( 0, 0, 10 );

    // Set rates in world units per 1/60th second (the default fixed step interval)
    float rotationSpeed = 1f / 60f;
    float forwardSpeed = 25f / 60f;

    // Set information about the game window.
    static int screenWidth = 800;
    static int screenHeight = 600;
    static float aspectRatio = (float)screenWidth / (float)screenHeight;

    // Set field of view of the camera in radians (pi/4 is 45 degrees).
    static float FOV = MathHelper.PiOver4;

    // Set z-values of the near and far clipping planes.
    static float nearClip = 5.0f;
    static float farClip = 1000.0f;


    struct WorldObject
    {
        public Vector3 position;
        public Vector3 velocity;
        public Model model;
        public Texture2D texture2D;
        public Vector3 lastPosition;
        public void MoveForward()
        {
            lastPosition = position;
            position += velocity;
        }
        public void Backup()
        {
            position -= velocity;
        }
        public void ReverseVelocity()
        {
            velocity.X = -velocity.X;
        }
    }

    WorldObject sphere1;
    WorldObject sphere2;
    WorldObject endSphere1;
    WorldObject endSphere2;

    static void CheckForCollisions( ref WorldObject c1, ref WorldObject c2 )
    {
        for (int i = 0; i < c1.model.Meshes.Count; i++)
        {
            // Check whether the bounding boxes of the two cubes intersect.
            BoundingSphere c1BoundingSphere = c1.model.Meshes[i].BoundingSphere;
            c1BoundingSphere.Center += c1.position;

            for (int j = 0; j < c2.model.Meshes.Count; j++)
            {
                BoundingSphere c2BoundingSphere = c2.model.Meshes[j].BoundingSphere;
                c2BoundingSphere.Center += c2.position;

                if (c1BoundingSphere.Intersects( c2BoundingSphere ))
                {
                    c2.ReverseVelocity();
                    c1.Backup();
                    c1.ReverseVelocity();
                    return;
                }
            }
        }
    }


    void UpdateCamera()
    {
        // Calculate the camera's current position.
        Vector3 cameraPosition = avatarPosition;

        // Copy the camera's reference vector.
        Vector3 cameraLookat = cameraReference;

        // Create a vector pointing the direction the camera is facing.
        cameraLookat = Vector3.Transform( cameraLookat, Matrix.CreateRotationY( avatarYaw ) );

        // Calculate the position the camera is looking at.
        cameraLookat += cameraPosition;

        // Set up the view matrix and projection matrix.
        view = Matrix.CreateLookAt( cameraPosition, cameraLookat, new Vector3( 0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f ) );
        proj = Matrix.CreatePerspectiveFieldOfView( FOV, aspectRatio, nearClip, farClip );
    }

    protected override void Draw( GameTime gameTime )
    {
        base.Draw( gameTime );

        UpdateCamera();
        GraphicsDevice device = graphics.GraphicsDevice;
        device.Clear( ClearOptions.Target | ClearOptions.DepthBuffer, new Vector4( 0, 0, 0, 255 ), 1.0f, 0 );

        DrawModel( sphere1.model, Matrix.CreateTranslation( sphere1.position ), sphere1.texture2D );

        DrawModel( sphere2.model, Matrix.CreateTranslation( sphere2.position ), sphere2.texture2D );
        DrawModel( endSphere1.model, Matrix.CreateTranslation( endSphere1.position ), endSphere1.texture2D );
        DrawModel( endSphere2.model, Matrix.CreateTranslation( endSphere2.position ), endSphere2.texture2D );
    }

    // Update the position and direction of the avatar.
    void UpdateAvatarPosition()
    {
        KeyboardState keyboardState = Keyboard.GetState();

        GamePadState currentState = GamePad.GetState( PlayerIndex.One );

        if (keyboardState.IsKeyDown( Keys.Left ) || (ButtonState.Pressed == currentState.DPad.Left))
        {
            // Rotate left.
            avatarYaw += rotationSpeed;
        }
        if (keyboardState.IsKeyDown( Keys.Right ) || (ButtonState.Pressed == currentState.DPad.Right))
        {
            // Rotate right.
            avatarYaw -= rotationSpeed;
        }
        if (keyboardState.IsKeyDown( Keys.Up ) || (ButtonState.Pressed == currentState.DPad.Up))
        {
            Matrix forwardMovement = Matrix.CreateRotationY( avatarYaw );
            Vector3 v = new Vector3( 0, 0, forwardSpeed );
            v = Vector3.Transform( v, forwardMovement );
            avatarPosition.Z += v.Z;
            avatarPosition.X += v.X;
        }
        if (keyboardState.IsKeyDown( Keys.Down ) || (ButtonState.Pressed == currentState.DPad.Down))
        {
            Matrix forwardMovement = Matrix.CreateRotationY( avatarYaw );
            Vector3 v = new Vector3( 0, 0, -forwardSpeed );
            v = Vector3.Transform( v, forwardMovement );
            avatarPosition.Z += v.Z;
            avatarPosition.X += v.X;
        }
    }

    protected override void Update( GameTime gameTime )
    {
        base.Update( gameTime );

        UpdateAvatarPosition();

        sphere1.MoveForward();
        CheckForCollisions( ref sphere1, ref sphere2 );
        CheckForCollisions( ref sphere1, ref endSphere1 );
        CheckForCollisions( ref sphere1, ref endSphere2 );

        sphere2.MoveForward();
        CheckForCollisions( ref sphere2, ref sphere1 );
        CheckForCollisions( ref sphere2, ref endSphere1 );
        CheckForCollisions( ref sphere2, ref endSphere2 );
    }

    protected override void LoadGraphicsContent( bool loadAllContent )
    {
        base.LoadGraphicsContent( loadAllContent );
        if (loadAllContent)
        {
            sphere = contentManager.Load<Model>( "sphere" );
            sphereTexture = contentManager.Load<Texture2D>( "spheretexture" );

            sphere1.model = sphere;
            sphere1.texture2D = sphereTexture;

            sphere2.model = sphere;
            sphere2.texture2D = sphereTexture;

            endSphere1.model = sphere;
            endSphere1.texture2D = sphereTexture;

            endSphere2.model = sphere;
            endSphere2.texture2D = sphereTexture;
        }
    }

    protected override void UnloadGraphicsContent( bool unloadAllContent )
    {
        base.UnloadGraphicsContent( unloadAllContent );
        if (unloadAllContent)
        {
            contentManager.Unload();
        }
    }

    public Game1()
    {
        graphics = new Microsoft.Xna.Framework.GraphicsDeviceManager( this );
        contentManager = new ContentManager( Services );

        sphere1 = new WorldObject();
        sphere1.position = new Vector3( 5, 0, 0 );
        sphere1.velocity = new Vector3( -0.1f, 0, 0 );

        sphere2 = new WorldObject();
        sphere2.position = new Vector3( -6, 0.5f, 0 );
        sphere2.velocity = new Vector3( 0.1f, 0, 0 );

        endSphere1 = new WorldObject();
        endSphere1.position = new Vector3( 10, 0, 0 );
        endSphere1.velocity = new Vector3( 0, 0, 0 );

        endSphere2 = new WorldObject();
        endSphere2.position = new Vector3( -10, 0, 0 );
        endSphere2.velocity = new Vector3( 0, 0, 0 );
    }



    void DrawModel( Model model, Matrix world, Texture2D texture )
    {
        foreach (ModelMesh mesh in model.Meshes)
        {
            foreach (BasicEffect be in mesh.Effects)
            {
                be.Projection = proj;
                be.View = view;
                be.World = world;
                be.Texture = texture;
                be.TextureEnabled = true;
            }
            mesh.Draw();
        }
    }


}
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