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Important This document may not represent best practices for current development, links to downloads and other resources may no longer be valid. Current recommended version can be found here.

stdin, stdout, stderr

FILE *stdin; 
FILE *stdout; 
FILE *stderr; 
#include <stdio.h>

These are standard streams for input, output, and error output.

By default, standard input is read from the keyboard, while standard output and standard error are printed to the screen.

The following stream pointers are available to access the standard streams:

Pointer

Stream

stdin

Standard input

stdout

Standard output

stderr

Standard error

These pointers can be used as arguments to functions. Some functions, such as getchar and putchar, use stdin and stdout automatically.

These pointers are constants, and cannot be assigned new values. The freopen function can be used to redirect the streams to disk files or to other devices. The operating system allows you to redirect a program's standard input and output at the command level.

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