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2.4.1 for Construct

The for directive identifies an iterative work-sharing construct that specifies that the iterations of the associated loop will be executed in parallel. The iterations of the for loop are distributed across threads that already exist in the team executing the parallel construct to which it binds. The syntax of the for construct is as follows:

#pragma omp for [clause[[,] clause] ... ] new-line
   for-loop

The clause is one of the following:

private(variable-list)

firstprivate(variable-list)

lastprivate(variable-list)

reduction(operator : variable-list)

ordered

schedule(kind[, chunk_size])

nowait

The for directive places restrictions on the structure of the corresponding for loop. Specifically, the corresponding for loop must have canonical shape:

for (init-expr; var logical-op b; incr-expr)

init-expr

One of the following:

var = lb

integer-type var = lb

incr-expr

One of the following:

++var

var ++

-- var

var --

var += incr

var -= incr

var = var + incr

var = incr + var

var = var - incr

var

A signed integer variable. If this variable would otherwise be shared, it is implicitly made private for the duration of the for. This variable must not be modified within the body of the for statement. Unless the variable is specified lastprivate, its value after the loop is indeterminate.

logical-op

One of the following:

<

<=

>

>=

lb, b, and incr

Loop invariant integer expressions. There is no synchronization during the evaluation of these expressions. Thus, any evaluated side effects produce indeterminate results.

Note that the canonical form allows the number of loop iterations to be computed on entry to the loop. This computation is performed with values in the type of var, after integral promotions. In particular, if value of b - lb + incr cannot be represented in that type, the result is indeterminate. Further, if logical-op is < or <= then incr-expr must cause var to increase on each iteration of the loop. If logical-op is > or >= then incr-expr must cause var to decrease on each iteration of the loop.

The schedule clause specifies how iterations of the for loop are divided among threads of the team. The correctness of a program must not depend on which thread executes a particular iteration. The value of chunk_size, if specified, must be a loop invariant integer expression with a positive value. There is no synchronization during the evaluation of this expression. Thus, any evaluated side effects produce indeterminate results. The schedule kind can be one of the following:

TABLE 2-1 schedule clause kind values

static

When schedule(static, chunk_size) is specified, iterations are divided into chunks of a size specified by chunk_size. The chunks are statically assigned to threads in the team in a round-robin fashion in the order of the thread number. When no chunk_size is specified, the iteration space is divided into chunks that are approximately equal in size, with one chunk assigned to each thread.

dynamic

When schedule(dynamic, chunk_size) is specified, the iterations are divided into a series of chunks, each containing chunk_size iterations. Each chunk is assigned to a thread that is waiting for an assignment. The thread executes the chunk of iterations and then waits for its next assignment, until no chunks remain to be assigned. Note that the last chunk to be assigned may have a smaller number of iterations. When no chunk_size is specified, it defaults to 1.

guided

When schedule(guided, chunk_size) is specified, the iterations are assigned to threads in chunks with decreasing sizes. When a thread finishes its assigned chunk of iterations, it is dynamically assigned another chunk, until none remain. For a chunk_size of 1, the size of each chunk is approximately the number of unassigned iterations divided by the number of threads. These sizes decrease approximately exponentially to 1. For a chunk_size with value k greater than 1, the sizes decrease approximately exponentially to k, except that the last chunk may have fewer than k iterations. When no chunk_size is specified, it defaults to 1.

runtime

When schedule(runtime) is specified, the decision regarding scheduling is deferred until runtime. The schedule kind and size of the chunks can be chosen at run time by setting the environment variable OMP_SCHEDULE. If this environment variable is not set, the resulting schedule is implementation-defined. When schedule(runtime) is specified, chunk_size must not be specified.

In the absence of an explicitly defined schedule clause, the default schedule is implementation-defined.

An OpenMP-compliant program should not rely on a particular schedule for correct execution. A program should not rely on a schedule kind conforming precisely to the description given above, because it is possible to have variations in the implementations of the same schedule kind across different compilers. The descriptions can be used to select the schedule that is appropriate for a particular situation.

The ordered clause must be present when ordered directives bind to the for construct.

There is an implicit barrier at the end of a for construct unless a nowait clause is specified.

Restrictions to the for directive are as follows:

  • The for loop must be a structured block, and, in addition, its execution must not be terminated by a break statement.

  • The values of the loop control expressions of the for loop associated with a for directive must be the same for all the threads in the team.

  • The for loop iteration variable must have a signed integer type.

  • Only a single schedule clause can appear on a for directive.

  • Only a single ordered clause can appear on a for directive.

  • Only a single nowait clause can appear on a for directive.

  • It is unspecified if or how often any side effects within the chunk_size, lb, b, or incr expressions occur.

  • The value of the chunk_size expression must be the same for all threads in the team.

  • private, firstprivate, lastprivate, and reduction clauses, see Section 2.7.2 on page 25.

  • OMP_SCHEDULE environment variable, see Section 4.1 on page 48.

  • ordered construct, see Section 2.6.6 on page 22.

  • Appendix D, page 93, gives more information on using the schedule clause.

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