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Scope Resolution Operator: ::

Scope Resolution Operator: ::

The scope resolution operator :: is used to identify and disambiguate identifiers used in different scopes. For more information about scope, see Scope (Visual C++).

:: identifier 
class-name :: identifier 
namespace :: identifier
enum class :: identifier
enum struct :: identifier

The identifier can be a variable, a function, or an enumeration value.

The following example shows how the scope resolution operator is used with namespaces and classes:

namespace NamespaceA{
    int x;
    class ClassA {
    public:
        int x;
    };
}

int main() {

    // A namespace name used to disambiguate
    NamespaceA::x = 1;

    // A class name used to disambiguate
    NamespaceA::ClassA a1;
    a1.x = 2;
    
}

A scope resolution operator without a scope qualifier refers to the global namespace.

namespace NamespaceA{
    int x;
}

int x; 

int main() {
    int x;
    
    // the x in main()
    x = 0; 
    // The x in the global namespace
    ::x = 1; 

    // The x in the A namespace
    NamespaceA::x = 2; 
}

You can use the scope resolution operator to identify a member of a namespace, or to identify a namespace that nominates the member’s namespace in a using-directive. In the example below, you can use NamespaceC to qualify ClassB, even though ClassB was declared in namespace NamespaceB, because NamespaceB was nominated in NamespaceC by a using directive.

namespace NamespaceB {
    class ClassB {
    public:
        int x;
    };
}

namespace NamespaceC{
    using namespace B;

}
int main() {
    NamespaceB::ClassB c_b;
    NamespaceC::ClassB c_c;

    c_b.x = 3;
    c_c.x = 4;
}

You can use chains of scope resolution operators. In the following example, NamespaceD::NamespaceD1 identifies the nested namespace NamespaceD1, and NamespaceE::ClassE::ClassE1 identifies the nested class ClassE1.

namespace NamespaceD{
    namespace NamespaceD1{
        int x;
    }
}

namespace NamespaceE{
    
    class ClassE{
    public:
        class ClassE1{
        public:
            int x;
        };
    };
}

int main() {
    NamespaceD:: NamespaceD1::x = 6;
    NamespaceE::ClassE::ClassE1 e1;
    e1.x = 7  ;
}

You must use the scope resolution operator to call static members of classes.

class ClassG {
public:
    static int get_x() { return x;}
    static int x;
};

int ClassG::x = 6;

int main() {

    int gx1 = ClassG::x;
    int gx2 = ClassG::get_x(); 
}

The scoped resolution operator is also used with the values of a scoped enumeration Enumeration Declarations, as in the following example:

enum class EnumA{
    First,
    Second,
    Third
};

int main() {

    EnumA enum_value = EnumA::First;
}
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