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This global function can be used to generate an image of the current stack.

void AFXAPI AfxDumpStack( 


Indicates the target of the dump output. Possible values, which can be combined using the bitwise-OR (|) operator, are as follows:

  • AFX_STACK_DUMP_TARGET_TRACE   Sends output by means of the TRACE macro. The TRACE macro generates output in debug builds only; it generates no output in release builds. Also, TRACE can be redirected to other targets besides the debugger.

  • AFX_STACK_DUMP_TARGET_DEFAULT   Sends dump output to the default target. For a debug build, output goes to the TRACE macro. In a release build, output goes to the Clipboard.

  • AFX_STACK_DUMP_TARGET_CLIPBOARD   Sends output to the Clipboard only. The data is placed on the Clipboard as plain text using the CF_TEXT Clipboard format.

  • AFX_STACK_DUMP_TARGET_BOTH   Sends output to the Clipboard and to the TRACE macro, simultaneously.

  • AFX_STACK_DUMP_TARGET_ODS   Sends output directly to the debugger by means of the Win32 function OutputDebugString(). This option will generate debugger output in both debug and release builds when a debugger is attached to the process. AFX_STACK_DUMP_TARGET_ODS always reaches the debugger (if it is attached) and cannot be redirected.

The example below reflects a single line of the output generated from calling AfxDumpStack from a button handler in an MFC dialog application:

=== begin AfxDumpStack output ===

00427D55: DUMP2\DEBUG\DUMP2.EXE! void AfxDumpStack(unsigned long) + 181 bytes

0040160B: DUMP2\DEBUG\DUMP2.EXE! void CDump2Dlg::OnClipboard(void) + 14 bytes

0044F884: DUMP2\DEBUG\DUMP2.EXE! int _AfxDispatchCmdMsg(class CCmdTarget *,

unsigned int,int,void ( CCmdTarget::*)(void),void *,unsigned int,struct AFX_CMDHANDLE

0044FF7B: DUMP2\DEBUG\DUMP2.EXE! virtual int CCmdTarget::OnCmdMsg(unsigned

int,int,void *,struct AFX_CMDHANDLERINFO *) + 626 bytes

00450C71: DUMP2\DEBUG\DUMP2.EXE! virtual int CDialog::OnCmdMsg(unsigned

int,int,void *,struct AFX_CMDHANDLERINFO *) + 36 bytes

00455B27: DUMP2\DEBUG\DUMP2.EXE! virtual int CWnd::OnCommand(unsigned

int,long) + 312 bytes

00454D3D: DUMP2\DEBUG\DUMP2.EXE! virtual int CWnd::OnWndMsg(unsigned

int,unsigned int,long,long *) + 83 bytes

00454CC0: DUMP2\DEBUG\DUMP2.EXE! virtual long CWnd::WindowProc(unsigned

int,unsigned int,long) + 46 bytes

004528D9: DUMP2\DEBUG\DUMP2.EXE! long AfxCallWndProc(class CWnd *,struct

HWND__ *,unsigned int,unsigned int,long) + 237 bytes

00452D34: DUMP2\DEBUG\DUMP2.EXE! long AfxWndProc(struct HWND__ *,unsigned

int,unsigned int,long) + 129 bytes

BFF73663: WINDOWS\SYSTEM\KERNEL32.DLL! ThunkConnect32 + 2148 bytes

BFF928E0: WINDOWS\SYSTEM\KERNEL32.DLL! UTUnRegister + 2492 bytes

=== end AfxDumpStack() output ===

Each line in the output above indicates the address of the last function call, the full path name of the module that contains the function call, and the function prototype called. If the function call on the stack does not happen at the exact address of the function, an offset of bytes is shown.

For example, the following table describes the first line of the above output:




The return address of the last function call.


The full path name of the module that contains the function call.

void AfxDumpStack(unsigned long)

The function prototype called.

+ 181 bytes

The offset in bytes from the address of the function prototype (in this case, void AfxDumpStack(unsigned long)) to the return address (in this case, 00427D55).

AfxDumpStack is available in debug and nondebug versions of the MFC libraries; however, the function is always linked statically, even when your executable file uses MFC in a shared DLL. In shared-library implementations, the function is found in the MFCS42.LIB library (and its variants).

To use this function successfully:

  • The file IMAGEHLP.DLL must be on your path. If you do not have this DLL, the function will display an error message. See Image Help Library for information on the function set provided by IMAGEHLP.

  • The modules that have frames on the stack must include debugging information. If they do not contain debugging information, the function will still generate a stack trace, but the trace will be less detailed.

Header: afx.h