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Using Stored Procedures with a Command

Stored procedures offer many advantages in data-driven applications. Using stored procedures, database operations can be encapsulated in a single command, optimized for best performance, and enhanced with additional security. While a stored procedure can be called by simply passing the stored procedure name followed by parameter arguments as an SQL statement, using the Parameters collection of the ADO.NET Command object enables you to more explicitly define stored procedure parameters as well as to access output parameters and return values.

To call a stored procedure, set the CommandType of the Command object to StoredProcedure. Once the CommandType is set to StoredProcedure, you can use the Parameters collection to define parameters, as in the following example.

Note   The OdbcCommand requires that you supply the full ODBC CALL syntax when calling a stored procedure.

SqlClient

Dim nwindConn As SqlConnection = New SqlConnection("Data Source=localhost;Integrated Security=SSPI;" & _
                                                   "Initial Catalog=northwind")

Dim salesCMD As SqlCommand = New SqlCommand("SalesByCategory", nwindConn)
salesCMD.CommandType = CommandType.StoredProcedure

Dim myParm As SqlParameter = salesCMD.Parameters.Add("@CategoryName", SqlDbType.NVarChar, 15)
myParm.Value = "Beverages"

nwindConn.Open()

Dim myReader As SqlDataReader = salesCMD.ExecuteReader()

Console.WriteLine("{0}, {1}", myReader.GetName(0), myReader.GetName(1))

Do While myReader.Read()
  Console.WriteLine("{0}, ${1}", myReader.GetString(0), myReader.GetDecimal(1))
Loop

myReader.Close()
nwindConn.Close()
[C#]SqlConnection nwindConn = new SqlConnection("Data Source=localhost;Integrated Security=SSPI;Initial Catalog=northwind");

SqlCommand salesCMD = new SqlCommand("SalesByCategory", nwindConn);
salesCMD.CommandType = CommandType.StoredProcedure;

SqlParameter myParm = salesCMD.Parameters.Add("@CategoryName", SqlDbType.NVarChar, 15);
myParm.Value = "Beverages";

nwindConn.Open();

SqlDataReader myReader = salesCMD.ExecuteReader();

Console.WriteLine("{0}, {1}", myReader.GetName(0), myReader.GetName(1));

while (myReader.Read())
{
  Console.WriteLine("{0}, ${1}", myReader.GetString(0), myReader.GetDecimal(1));
}

myReader.Close();
nwindConn.Close();

OleDb

Dim nwindConn As OleDbConnection = New OleDbConnection("Provider=SQLOLEDB;Data Source=localhost;Integrated Security=SSPI;" & _
                                                       "Initial Catalog=northwind")

Dim salesCMD As OleDbCommand = New OleDbCommand("SalesByCategory", nwindConn)
salesCMD.CommandType = CommandType.StoredProcedure

Dim myParm As OleDbParameter = salesCMD.Parameters.Add("@CategoryName", OleDbType.VarChar, 15)
myParm.Value = "Beverages"

nwindConn.Open()

Dim myReader As OleDbDataReader = salesCMD.ExecuteReader()

Console.WriteLine("{0}, {1}", myReader.GetName(0), myReader.GetName(1))

Do While myReader.Read()
  Console.WriteLine("{0}, ${1}", myReader.GetString(0), myReader.GetDecimal(1))
Loop

myReader.Close()
nwindConn.Close()
[C#]OleDbConnection nwindConn = new OleDbConnection("Provider=SQLOLEDB;Data Source=localhost;Integrated Security=SSPI;" +
                                                "Initial Catalog=northwind");

OleDbCommand salesCMD = new OleDbCommand("SalesByCategory", nwindConn);
salesCMD.CommandType = CommandType.StoredProcedure;

OleDbParameter myParm = salesCMD.Parameters.Add("@CategoryName", OleDbType.VarChar, 15);
myParm.Value = "Beverages";

nwindConn.Open();

OleDbDataReader myReader = salesCMD.ExecuteReader();

Console.WriteLine("\t{0}, {1}", myReader.GetName(0), myReader.GetName(1));

while (myReader.Read())
{
  Console.WriteLine("\t{0}, ${1}", myReader.GetString(0), myReader.GetDecimal(1));
}

myReader.Close();
nwindConn.Close();

Odbc

Dim nwindConn As OdbcConnection = New OdbcConnection("Driver={SQL Server};Server=localhost;Trusted_Connection=yes;" & _
                                                       "Database=northwind")
nwindConn.Open()

Dim salesCMD As OdbcCommand = New OdbcCommand("{ CALL SalesByCategory(?) }", nwindConn)
salesCMD.CommandType = CommandType.StoredProcedure

Dim myParm As OdbcParameter = salesCMD.Parameters.Add("@CategoryName", OdbcType.VarChar, 15)
myParm.Value = "Beverages"

Dim myReader As OdbcDataReader = salesCMD.ExecuteReader()

Console.WriteLine("{0}, {1}", myReader.GetName(0), myReader.GetName(1))

Do While myReader.Read()
  Console.WriteLine("{0}, ${1}", myReader.GetString(0), myReader.GetDecimal(1))
Loop

myReader.Close()
nwindConn.Close()
[C#]OdbcConnection nwindConn = new OdbcConnection("Driver={SQL Server};Server=localhost;Trusted_Connection=yes;" +
                                              "Database=northwind");
nwindConn.Open();

OdbcCommand salesCMD = new OdbcCommand("{ CALL SalesByCategory(?) }", nwindConn);
salesCMD.CommandType = CommandType.StoredProcedure;

OdbcParameter myParm = salesCMD.Parameters.Add("@CategoryName", OdbcType.VarChar, 15);
myParm.Value = "Beverages";

OdbcDataReader myReader = salesCMD.ExecuteReader();

Console.WriteLine("\t{0}, {1}", myReader.GetName(0), myReader.GetName(1));

while (myReader.Read())
{
  Console.WriteLine("\t{0}, ${1}", myReader.GetString(0), myReader.GetDecimal(1));
}

myReader.Close();
nwindConn.Close();

A Parameter object can be created using the Parameter constructor, or by calling the Add method of the Parameters collection of a Command. Parameters.Add will take as input either constructor arguments or an existing Parameter object. When setting the Value of a Parameter to a null reference, use DBNull.Value.

For parameters other than Input parameters, you must set the ParameterDirection property to specify whether the parameter type is InputOutput, Output, or ReturnValue. The following example shows the difference between creating Input, Output, and ReturnValue parameters.

SqlClient

Dim sampleCMD As SqlCommand = New SqlCommand("SampleProc", nwindConn)
sampleCMD.CommandType = CommandType.StoredProcedure

Dim sampParm As SqlParameter = sampleCMD.Parameters.Add("RETURN_VALUE", SqlDbType.Int)
sampParm.Direction = ParameterDirection.ReturnValue

sampParm = sampleCMD.Parameters.Add("@InputParm", SqlDbType.NVarChar, 12)
sampParm.Value = "Sample Value"

sampParm = sampleCMD.Parameters.Add("@OutputParm", SqlDbType.NVarChar, 28)
sampParm.Direction = ParameterDirection.Output

nwindConn.Open()

Dim sampReader As SqlDataReader = sampleCMD.ExecuteReader()

Console.WriteLine("{0}, {1}", sampReader.GetName(0), sampReader.GetName(1))

Do While sampReader.Read()
  Console.WriteLine("{0}, {1}", sampReader.GetInt32(0), sampReader.GetString(1))
Loop

sampReader.Close()
nwindConn.Close()

Console.WriteLine(" @OutputParm: {0}", sampleCMD.Parameters("@OutputParm").Value)
Console.WriteLine("RETURN_VALUE: {0}", sampleCMD.Parameters("RETURN_VALUE").Value)
[C#]SqlCommand sampleCMD = new SqlCommand("SampleProc", nwindConn);
sampleCMD.CommandType = CommandType.StoredProcedure;

SqlParameter sampParm = sampleCMD.Parameters.Add("RETURN_VALUE", SqlDbType.Int);
sampParm.Direction = ParameterDirection.ReturnValue;

sampParm = sampleCMD.Parameters.Add("@InputParm", SqlDbType.NVarChar, 12);
sampParm.Value = "Sample Value";

sampParm = sampleCMD.Parameters.Add("@OutputParm", SqlDbType.NVarChar, 28);
sampParm.Direction = ParameterDirection.Output;

nwindConn.Open();

SqlDataReader sampReader = sampleCMD.ExecuteReader();

Console.WriteLine("{0}, {1}", sampReader.GetName(0), sampReader.GetName(1));

while (sampReader.Read())
{
  Console.WriteLine("{0}, {1}", sampReader.GetInt32(0), sampReader.GetString(1));
}

sampReader.Close();
nwindConn.Close();

Console.WriteLine(" @OutputParm: {0}", sampleCMD.Parameters["@OutputParm"].Value);
Console.WriteLine("RETURN_VALUE: {0}", sampleCMD.Parameters["RETURN_VALUE"].Value);

OleDb

Dim sampleCMD As OleDbCommand = New OleDbCommand("SampleProc", nwindConn)
sampleCMD.CommandType = CommandType.StoredProcedure

Dim sampParm As OleDbParameter = sampleCMD.Parameters.Add("RETURN_VALUE", OleDbType.Integer)
sampParm.Direction = ParameterDirection.ReturnValue

sampParm = sampleCMD.Parameters.Add("@InputParm", OleDbType.VarChar, 12)
sampParm.Value = "Sample Value"

sampParm = sampleCMD.Parameters.Add("@OutputParm", OleDbType.VarChar, 28)
sampParm.Direction = ParameterDirection.Output

nwindConn.Open()

Dim sampReader As OleDbDataReader = sampleCMD.ExecuteReader()

Console.WriteLine("{0}, {1}", sampReader.GetName(0), sampReader.GetName(1))

Do While sampReader.Read()
  Console.WriteLine("{0}, {1}", sampReader.GetInt32(0), sampReader.GetString(1))
Loop

sampReader.Close()
nwindConn.Close()

Console.WriteLine(" @OutputParm: {0}", sampleCMD.Parameters("@OutputParm").Value)
Console.WriteLine("RETURN_VALUE: {0}", sampleCMD.Parameters("RETURN_VALUE").Value)
[C#]OleDbCommand sampleCMD = new OleDbCommand("SampleProc", nwindConn);
sampleCMD.CommandType = CommandType.StoredProcedure;

OleDbParameter sampParm = sampleCMD.Parameters.Add("RETURN_VALUE", OleDbType.Integer);
sampParm.Direction = ParameterDirection.ReturnValue;

sampParm = sampleCMD.Parameters.Add("@InputParm", OleDbType.VarChar, 12);
sampParm.Value = "Sample Value";

sampParm = sampleCMD.Parameters.Add("@OutputParm", OleDbType.VarChar, 28);
sampParm.Direction = ParameterDirection.Output;

nwindConn.Open();

OleDbDataReader sampReader = sampleCMD.ExecuteReader();

Console.WriteLine("{0}, {1}", sampReader.GetName(0), sampReader.GetName(1));

while (sampReader.Read())
{
  Console.WriteLine("{0}, {1}", sampReader.GetInt32(0), sampReader.GetString(1));
}

sampReader.Close();
nwindConn.Close();

Console.WriteLine(" @OutputParm: {0}", sampleCMD.Parameters["@OutputParm"].Value);
Console.WriteLine("RETURN_VALUE: {0}", sampleCMD.Parameters["RETURN_VALUE"].Value);

Odbc

Dim sampleCMD As OdbcCommand = New OdbcCommand("{ ? = CALL SampleProc(?, ?) }", nwindConn)
sampleCMD.CommandType = CommandType.StoredProcedure

Dim sampParm As OdbcParameter = sampleCMD.Parameters.Add("RETURN_VALUE", OdbcType.Int)
sampParm.Direction = ParameterDirection.ReturnValue

sampParm = sampleCMD.Parameters.Add("@InputParm", OdbcType.VarChar, 12)
sampParm.Value = "Sample Value"

sampParm = sampleCMD.Parameters.Add("@OutputParm", OdbcType.VarChar, 28)
sampParm.Direction = ParameterDirection.Output

nwindConn.Open()

Dim sampReader As OdbcDataReader = sampleCMD.ExecuteReader()

Console.WriteLine("{0}, {1}", sampReader.GetName(0), sampReader.GetName(1))

Do While sampReader.Read()
  Console.WriteLine("{0}, {1}", sampReader.GetInt32(0), sampReader.GetString(1))
Loop

sampReader.Close()
nwindConn.Close()

Console.WriteLine(" @OutputParm: {0}", sampleCMD.Parameters("@OutputParm").Value)
Console.WriteLine("RETURN_VALUE: {0}", sampleCMD.Parameters("RETURN_VALUE").Value)
[C#]OdbcCommand sampleCMD = new OdbcCommand("{ ? = CALL SampleProc(?, ?) }", nwindConn);
sampleCMD.CommandType = CommandType.StoredProcedure;

OdbcParameter sampParm = sampleCMD.Parameters.Add("RETURN_VALUE", OdbcType.Int);
sampParm.Direction = ParameterDirection.ReturnValue;

sampParm = sampleCMD.Parameters.Add("@InputParm", OdbcType.VarChar, 12);
sampParm.Value = "Sample Value";

sampParm = sampleCMD.Parameters.Add("@OutputParm", OdbcType.VarChar, 28);
sampParm.Direction = ParameterDirection.Output;

nwindConn.Open();

OdbcDataReader sampReader = sampleCMD.ExecuteReader();

Console.WriteLine("{0}, {1}", sampReader.GetName(0), sampReader.GetName(1));

while (sampReader.Read())
{
  Console.WriteLine("{0}, {1}", sampReader.GetInt32(0), sampReader.GetString(1));
}

sampReader.Close();
nwindConn.Close();

Console.WriteLine(" @OutputParm: {0}", sampleCMD.Parameters["@OutputParm"].Value);
Console.WriteLine("RETURN_VALUE: {0}", sampleCMD.Parameters["RETURN_VALUE"].Value);

Using Parameters with a SqlCommand

When using parameters with a SqlCommand, the names of the parameters added to the Parameters collection must match the names of the parameter markers in your stored procedure. The .NET Framework Data Provider for SQL Server treats parameters in the stored procedure as named parameters and searches for the matching parameter markers.

The .NET Framework Data Provider for SQL Server does not support the question mark (?) placeholder for passing parameters to an SQL statement or a stored procedure. In this case, you must use named parameters, as in the following example.

SELECT * FROM Customers WHERE CustomerID = @CustomerID

Using Parameters with an OleDbCommand or OdbcCommand

When using parameters with an OleDbCommand or OdbcCommand, the order of the parameters added to the Parameters collection must match the order of the parameters defined in your stored procedure. The .NET Framework Data Provider for OLE DB and .NET Framework Data Provider for ODBC treat parameters in a stored procedure as placeholders and applies parameter values in order. In addition, return value parameters must be the first parameters added to the Parameters collection.

The .NET Framework Data Provider for OLE DB and .NET Framework Data Provider for ODBC do not support named parameters for passing parameters to an SQL statement or a stored procedure. In this case, you must use the question mark (?) placeholder, as in the following example.

SELECT * FROM Customers WHERE CustomerID = ?

As a result, the order in which Parameter objects are added to the Parameters collection must directly correspond to the position of the question mark placeholder for the parameter.

Deriving Parameter Information

Parameters can also be derived from a stored procedure using the CommandBuilder class. Both the SqlCommandBuilder and OleDbCommandBuilder classes provide a static method, DeriveParameters, which will automatically populate the Parameters collection of a Command object with parameter information from a stored procedure. Note that DeriveParameters will overwrite any existing parameter information for the Command.

Deriving parameter information does require an added trip to the data source for the information. If parameter information is known at design-time, you can improve the performance of your application by setting the parameters explicitly.

The following code example shows how to populate the Parameters collection of a Command object using CommandBuilder.DeriveParameters.

Dim nwindConn As SqlConnection = New SqlConnection("Data Source=localhost;Initial Catalog=Northwind;Integrated Security=SSPI;")
Dim salesCMD As SqlCommand = New SqlCommand("Sales By Year", nwindConn)
salesCMD.CommandType = CommandType.StoredProcedure

nwindConn.Open()
SqlCommandBuilder.DeriveParameters(salesCMD)
nwindConn.Close()
[C#]SqlConnection nwindConn = new SqlConnection("Data Source=localhost;Initial Catalog=Northwind;Integrated Security=SSPI;");
SqlCommand salesCMD = new SqlCommand("Sales By Year", nwindConn);
salesCMD.CommandType = CommandType.StoredProcedure;

nwindConn.Open();
SqlCommandBuilder.DeriveParameters(salesCMD);
nwindConn.Close();

See Also

Using .NET Framework Data Providers to Access Data | OleDbCommand Class | OleDbConnection Class | OleDbDataReader Class | OleDbParameterCollection Class | OdbcCommand Class | OdbcConnection Class | OdbcDataReader Class | OdbcParameterCollection Class | SqlCommand Class | SqlConnection Class | SqlDataReader Class | SqlParameterCollection Class

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