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Type.InvokeMember Method (String, BindingFlags, Binder, Object, Object[], ParameterModifier[], CultureInfo, String[])

.NET Framework 1.1

When overridden in a derived class, invokes the specified member, using the specified binding constraints and matching the specified argument list, modifiers and culture.

[Visual Basic]
Overloads Public MustOverride Function InvokeMember( _
   ByVal name As String, _
   ByVal invokeAttr As BindingFlags, _
   ByVal binder As Binder, _
   ByVal target As Object, _
   ByVal args() As Object, _
   ByVal modifiers() As ParameterModifier, _
   ByVal culture As CultureInfo, _
   ByVal namedParameters() As String _
) As Object Implements IReflect.InvokeMember
public abstract object InvokeMember(
 string name,
 BindingFlags invokeAttr,
 Binder binder,
 object target,
 object[] args,
 ParameterModifier[] modifiers,
 CultureInfo culture,
 string[] namedParameters
public: virtual Object* InvokeMember(
 String* name,
 BindingFlags invokeAttr,
 Binder* binder,
 Object* target,
 Object* args __gc[],
 ParameterModifier modifiers[],
 CultureInfo* culture,
 String* namedParameters __gc[]
) = 0;
public abstract function InvokeMember(
   name : String,
 invokeAttr : BindingFlags,
 binder : Binder,
 target : Object,
 args : Object[],
 modifiers : ParameterModifier[],
 culture : CultureInfo,
 namedParameters : String[]
) : Object;


The String containing the name of the constructor, method, property, or field member to invoke.


An empty string ("") to invoke the default member.

A bitmask comprised of one or more BindingFlags that specify how the search is conducted. The access can be one of the BindingFlags such as Public, NonPublic, Private, InvokeMethod, GetField, and so on. The type of lookup need not be specified. If the type of lookup is omitted, BindingFlags.Public | BindingFlags.Instance will apply.
A Binder object that defines a set of properties and enables binding, which can involve selection of an overloaded method, coercion of argument types, and invocation of a member through reflection.


A null reference (Nothing in Visual Basic), to use the DefaultBinder.

The Object on which to invoke the specified member.
An array containing the arguments to pass to the member to invoke.
An array of ParameterModifier objects representing the attributes associated with the corresponding element in the args array. A parameter's associated attributes are stored in the member's signature. The default binder does not process this parameter.
The CultureInfo object representing the globalization locale to use, which may be necessary for locale-specific conversions, such as converting a numeric String to a Double.


A null reference (Nothing in Visual Basic) to use the current thread's CultureInfo.

An array containing the names of the parameters to which the values in the args array are passed.

Return Value

An Object representing the return value of the invoked member.




Exception Type Condition
ArgumentNullException invokeAttr contains CreateInstance and typeName is a null reference (Nothing in Visual Basic).
ArgumentException args is multidimensional.


modifiers is multidimensional.


args and modifiers do not have the same length.


invokeAttr is not a valid BindingFlags attribute.


invokeAttr contains CreateInstance combined with InvokeMethod, GetField, SetField, GetProperty, or SetProperty.


invokeAttr contains both GetField and SetField.


invokeAttr contains both GetProperty and SetProperty.


invokeAttr contains InvokeMethod combined with SetField or SetProperty.


invokeAttr contains SetField and args has more than one element.


The named parameter array is larger than the argument array.


This method is called on a COM object and one of the following binding flags was not passed in: BindingFlags.InvokeMethod, BindingFlags.GetProperty, BindingFlags.SetProperty, BindingFlags.PutDispProperty, or BindingFlags.PutRefDispProperty.


One of the named parameter arrays contains a string that is a null reference (Nothing in Visual Basic).

MethodAccessException The specified member is a class initializer.
MissingFieldException The field or property cannot be found.
MissingMethodException The method cannot be found.
TargetException The specified member cannot be invoked on target.
AmbiguousMatchException More than one method matches the binding criteria.


InvokeMember calls a constructor member or a method member, gets or sets a property member, gets or sets a data field member, or gets or sets an element of an array member.

Although the default binder does not process ParameterModifier or CultureInfo (the modifiers and culture parameters), you can use the abstract System.Reflection.Binder class to write a custom binder that does process modifiers and culture. ParameterModifier is only used when calling through COM interop, and only parameters that are passed by reference are handled.

The args array and the modifiers array have the same length. A parameter specified in the args array can have the following attributes, which are specified in the modifiers array: pdIn, pdOut, pdLcid, pdRetval, pdOptional, and pdHasDefault, which represent [In], [Out], [lcid], [retval], [optional], and a value specifying whether the parameter has a default value. A parameter's associated attributes are stored in the metadata and enhance interoperability.

Each parameter in the namedParameters array gets the value in the corresponding element in the args array. If the length of args is greater than the length of namedParameters, the remaining argument values are passed in order.

The following BindingFlags filter flags can be used to define which members to include in the search:

  • You must specify either BindingFlags.Instance or BindingFlags.Static in order to get a return.
  • Specify BindingFlags.Public to include public members in the search.
  • Specify BindingFlags.NonPublic to include non-public members (that is, private and protected members) in the search.
  • Specify BindingFlags.FlattenHierarchy to include static members up the hierarchy.

The following BindingFlags modifier flags can be used to change how the search works:

  • BindingFlags.IgnoreCase to ignore the case of name.
  • BindingFlags.DeclaredOnly to search only the members declared on the Type, not members that were simply inherited.

The following BindingFlags invocation flags can be used to denote what action to take with the member:

  • CreateInstance to invoke a constructor. name is ignored. Not valid with other invocation flags.
  • InvokeMethod to invoke a method, but not a constructor or a type initializer. Not valid with SetField or SetProperty.
  • GetField to get the value of a field. Not valid with SetField.
  • SetField to set the value of a field. Not valid with GetField.
  • GetProperty to get a property. Not valid with SetProperty.
  • SetProperty to set a property. Not valid with GetProperty.

See System.Reflection.BindingFlags for more information.

A method will be invoked if the following conditions are true:

  • The number of parameters in the method declaration equals the number of arguments in the args array (unless default arguments are defined on the member).
  • The type of each argument can be converted by the binder to the type of the parameter.

The binder will find all of the matching methods. These methods are found based upon the type of binding requested (BindingFlags values InvokeMethod, GetProperty, and so on). The set of methods is filtered by the name, number of arguments, and a set of search modifiers defined in the binder.

After the method is selected, it is invoked. Accessibility is checked at that point. The search may control which set of methods are searched based upon the accessibility attribute associated with the method. The Binder.BindToMethod method of the Binder class is responsible for selecting the method to be invoked. The default binder selects the most specific match.

InvokeMember can be used to invoke methods with parameters that have default values. To bind to these methods, Reflection requires BindingFlags.OptionalParamBinding to be specified. For a parameter that has a default value, you can either supply a different value, or supply Missing.Value to use the default value.

For example, consider a method such as MyMethod(int x, float y = 2.0). To invoke this method with only the first argument as MyMethod(4), pass one of the above binding flags and pass two arguments, namely, 4 for the first argument and Missing.Value for the second argument. Unless you use Missing.Value, you may not omit optional parameters with the Invoke method. If you must do so, use InvokeMember instead.

Access restrictions are ignored for fully trusted code; that is, private constructors, methods, fields, and properties can be accessed and invoked through System.Reflection whenever the code is fully trusted.

You can use Type.InvokeMember to set a field to a particular value by specifying BindingFlags.SetField. For example, if you want to set a public instance field named F on class C, and F is a String, you can use code such as: typeof(C).InvokeMember("F", BindingFlags.SetField, null, C, new Object{"strings new value"}, null,

null, null);

If F is a String[], you can use code such as: typeof(C).InvokeMember("F", BindingFlags.SetField, null, C, new Object{new String[]{"a","z","c","d"},

null, null, null);

which will initialize the field F to this new array. You can also use Type.InvokeMember to set a position in an array by supplying the index of the value and then the next value by using code such as the following: typeof(C).InvokeMember("F", BindingFlags.SetField, null, C, new Object{1, "b"}, null, null, null);

This will change string "z" in the array that F holds to string "b".


Platforms: Windows 98, Windows NT 4.0, Windows Millennium Edition, Windows 2000, Windows XP Home Edition, Windows XP Professional, Windows Server 2003 family, .NET Compact Framework, Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) Standard

.NET Framework Security: 

See Also

Type Class | Type Members | System Namespace | Type.InvokeMember Overload List | String | Binder | DefaultBinder | BindingFlags | ParameterModifier | ParameterAttributes | CultureInfo | ReflectionPermission