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1.1 Glossary

This document uses the following terms:

64-bit Network Data Representation (NDR64): A specific instance of a remote procedure call (RPC) transfer syntax. For more information about RPC transfer syntax, see [C706] section 14.

access check: A verification to determine whether a specific access type is allowed by checking a security context against a security descriptor.

access control entry (ACE): An entry in an access control list (ACL) that contains a set of user rights and a security identifier (SID) that identifies a principal for whom the rights are allowed, denied, or audited.

access mask: A 32-bit value present in an access control entry (ACE) that specifies the allowed or denied rights to manipulate an object.

account: A user (including machine account), group, or alias object. Also a synonym for security principal or principal.

account domain object (account domain): A domain object that represents an issuing authority in which user objects can be created. For more information about the concept of an issuing authority, see [MS-AUTHSOD] section 1.1.1.5.

account domain security identifier: The security identifier (SID) of the account domain object.

account group: A group object whose members always include the security identifier (SID) of the group in the authorization context.

AccountOperatorsSid: A SID with the specific value of S-1-5-32-548.

ACID: A term that refers to the four properties that any database system must achieve in order to be considered transactional: Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, and Durability [GRAY].

Active Directory: A general-purpose network directory service. Active Directory also refers to the Windows implementation of a directory service. Active Directory stores information about a variety of objects in the network. Importantly, user accounts, computer accounts, groups, and all related credential information used by the Windows implementation of Kerberos are stored in Active Directory. Active Directory is either deployed as Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) or Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS). [MS-ADTS] describes both forms. For more information, see [MS-AUTHSOD] section 1.1.1.5.2, Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) versions 2 and 3, Kerberos, and DNS.

administrator: A user who has complete and unrestricted access to the computer or domain.

AdministratorSid: A SID with the specific value of S-1-5-32-544.

alias object: See resource group.

authorization context: The set of identities for groups and the identity of the user made available to a server for the purpose of determining authorization to a resource.

built-in domain: The security identifier (SID) namespace defined by the fixed SID S-1-5-32. Contains groups that define roles on a local machine such as Backup Operators.

control access right: An extended access right that can be granted or denied on an access control list (ACL).

database object: A representation of a named set of attribute value pairs that a protocol exposes.

delta time: A negative FILETIME. It represents a period of time, expressed in a negative number of 100-nanosecond time slices. For example, a period of 20 minutes is represented as -12000000000.

discretionary access control list (DACL): An access control list (ACL) that is controlled by the owner of an object and that specifies the access particular users or groups can have to the object.

domain: A set of users and computers sharing a common namespace and management infrastructure. At least one computer member of the set must act as a domain controller (DC) and host a member list that identifies all members of the domain, as well as optionally hosting the Active Directory service. The domain controller provides authentication (2) of members, creating a unit of trust for its members. Each domain has an identifier that is shared among its members. For more information, see [MS-AUTHSOD] section 1.1.1.5 and [MS-ADTS].

domain admins: A group with a security identifier (SID) with the relative ID value of 512 in the account domain.

domain controller (DC): The service, running on a server, that implements Active Directory, or the server hosting this service. The service hosts the data store for objects and interoperates with other DCs to ensure that a local change to an object replicates correctly across all DCs. When Active Directory is operating as Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS), the DC contains full NC replicas of the configuration naming context (config NC), schema naming context (schema NC), and one of the domain NCs in its forest. If the AD DS DC is a global catalog server (GC server), it contains partial NC replicas of the remaining domain NCs in its forest. For more information, see [MS-AUTHSOD] section 1.1.1.5.2 and [MS-ADTS]. When Active Directory is operating as Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS), several AD LDS DCs can run on one server. When Active Directory is operating as AD DS, only one AD DS DC can run on one server. However, several AD LDS DCs can coexist with one AD DS DC on one server. The AD LDS DC contains full NC replicas of the config NC and the schema NC in its forest. The domain controller is the server side of Authentication Protocol Domain Support [MS-APDS].

domain functional level: A specification of functionality available in a domain. Must be less than or equal to the DC functional level of every domain controller (DC) that hosts a replica of the domain's naming context (NC). For information on defined levels, corresponding features, information on how the domain functional level is determined, and supported domain controllers, see [MS-ADTS] sections 6.1.4.2 and 6.1.4.3. When Active Directory is operating as Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS), domain functional level does not exist.

domain name: A domain name or a NetBIOS name that identifies a domain.

domain object: A unit of data storage in a domain that is maintained and made available to domain members by a domain controller (DC).

domain prefix: A security identifier (SID) of a domain without the relative identifier (RID) portion. The domain prefix refers to the issuing authority SID. For example, the domain prefix of S-1-5-21-397955417-626881126-188441444-1010 is S-1-5-21-397955417-626881126-188441444.

dsname: A tuple that contains between one and three identifiers for an object. The term dsname does not stand for anything. The possible identifiers are the object's GUID (attribute objectGuid), security identifier (SID) (attribute objectSid), and distinguished name (DN) (attribute distinguishedName). A dsname can appear in a protocol message and as an attribute value (for example, a value of an attribute with syntax Object(DS-DN)). Given a DSName, an object can be identified within a set of NC replicas according to the matching rules defined in [MS-DRSR] section 5.49.

forest: In the Active Directory directory service, a forest is a set of naming contexts (NCs) consisting of one schema NC, one config NC, and one or more domain NCs. Because a set of NCs can be arranged into a tree structure, a forest is also a set of one or several trees of NCs.

fully qualified domain name (FQDN): In Active Directory, a fully qualified domain name (FQDN) that identifies a domain.

globally unique identifier (GUID): A term used interchangeably with universally unique identifier (UUID) in Microsoft protocol technical documents (TDs). Interchanging the usage of these terms does not imply or require a specific algorithm or mechanism to generate the value. Specifically, the use of this term does not imply or require that the algorithms described in [RFC4122] or [C706] must be used for generating the GUID. See also universally unique identifier (UUID).

group object: In Active Directory, a group object has an object class group. A group has a forward link attribute member; the values of this attribute (2) either represent elements of the group (for example, objects of class user or computer) or subsets of the group (objects of class group). The representation of group subsets is called "nested group membership". The back link attribute memberOf enables navigation from group members to the groups containing them. Some groups represent groups of security principals and some do not and are, for instance, used to represent email distribution lists.

LM hash: A DES-based cryptographic hash of a cleartext password. See LMOWFv1, as specified in [MS-NLMP] section 3.3.1 (NTLM v1 Authentication), for a normative definition.

machine account: An account that is associated with individual client or server machines in an Active Directory domain.

mixed mode: A state of an Active Directory domain that supports domain controllers (DCs) running Windows NT Server 4.0 operating system. Mixed mode does not allow organizations to take advantage of new Active Directory features such as universal groups, nested group membership, and interdomain group membership. See also native mode.

native mode: A state of an Active Directory domain in which all current and future domain controllers (DCs) use AD style domains. Native mode allows organizations to take advantage of the new Active Directory features such as universal groups, nested group membership, and interdomain group membership.

Network Data Representation (NDR): A specification that defines a mapping from Interface Definition Language (IDL) data types onto octet streams. NDR also refers to the runtime environment that implements the mapping facilities (for example, data provided to NDR). For more information, see [MS-RPCE] and [C706] section 14.

NT hash: An MD4- or MD5-based cryptographic hash of a clear text password. For more information, see [MS-NLMP] section 3.3.1 (NTOWFv1, NTLM v1 Authentication), for a normative definition.

original equipment manufacturer (OEM) code page: A code page used to translate between non-Unicode encoded strings and UTF-16 encoded strings.

primary domain controller (PDC): A domain controller (DC) designated to track changes made to the accounts of all computers on a domain. It is the only computer to receive these changes directly, and is specialized so as to ensure consistency and to eliminate the potential for conflicting entries in the Active Directory database. A domain has only one PDC.

RC4: A variable key-length symmetric encryption algorithm. For more information, see [SCHNEIER] section 17.1.

read-only domain controller (RODC): A domain controller (DC) that does not accept originating updates. Additionally, an RODC does not perform outbound replication. An RODC cannot be the primary domain controller (PDC) for its domain.

relative distinguished name (RDN): The name of an object relative to its parent. This is the leftmost attribute-value pair in the distinguished name (DN) of an object. For example, in the DN "cn=Peter Houston, ou=NTDEV, dc=microsoft, dc=com", the RDN is "cn=Peter Houston". For more information, see [RFC2251].

relative identifier (RID): The last item in the series of SubAuthority values in a security identifier (SID) [SIDD]. It distinguishes one account or group from all other accounts and groups in the domain. No two accounts or groups in any domain share the same RID.

resource group: A group object whose membership is added to the authorization context only if the server receiving the context is a member of the same domain as the resource group.

RPC transfer syntax: A method for encoding messages defined in an Interface Definition Language (IDL) file. Remote procedure call (RPC) can support different encoding methods or transfer syntaxes. For more information, see [C706].

salt: A value consisting of random bits used to increase the complexity of dictionary attacks against secret data that is protected through cryptographic means. For details, see [MENEZES] section 10.2.1.

security descriptor: A data structure containing the security information associated with a securable object. A security descriptor identifies an object's owner by its security identifier (SID). If access control is configured for the object, its security descriptor contains a discretionary access control list (DACL) with SIDs for the security principals who are allowed or denied access. Applications use this structure to set and query an object's security status. The security descriptor is used to guard access to an object as well as to control which type of auditing takes place when the object is accessed. The security descriptor format is specified in [MS-DTYP] section 2.4.6; a string representation of security descriptors, called SDDL, is specified in [MS-DTYP] section 2.5.1.

security identifier (SID): An identifier for security principals in Windows that is used to identify an account or a group. Conceptually, the SID is composed of an account authority portion (typically a domain) and a smaller integer representing an identity relative to the account authority, termed the relative identifier (RID). The SID format is specified in [MS-DTYP] section 2.4.2; a string representation of SIDs is specified in [MS-DTYP] section 2.4.2 and [MS-AZOD] section 1.1.1.2.

security principal: A unique entity, also referred to as a principal, that can be authenticated by Active Directory. It frequently corresponds to a human user, but also can be a service that offers a resource to other security principals. Other security principals might be a group, which is a set of principals. Groups are supported by Active Directory.

server object: The database object in the account domain with an object class of samServer.

system access control list (SACL): An access control list (ACL) that controls the generation of audit messages for attempts to access a securable object. The ability to get or set an object's SACL is controlled by a privilege typically held only by system administrators.

token: A set of rights and privileges for a given user.

UAS Compatibility: A configuration mode that affects protocol behavior constraints specified in this document. "UAS" is the acronym for "User Account Security (Database)" and refers to products no longer supported, such as Microsoft NT LAN Manager. The default setting in Windows is "off".

universal group: An Active Directory group that allows user objects, global groups, and universal groups from anywhere in the forest as members. A group object g is a universal group if and only if GROUP_TYPE_UNIVERSAL_GROUP is present in g! groupType. A security-enabled universal group is valid for inclusion within ACLs anywhere in the forest. If a domain is in mixed mode, then a universal group cannot be created in that domain. See also domain local group, security-enabled group.

universally unique identifier (UUID): A 128-bit value. UUIDs can be used for multiple purposes, from tagging objects with an extremely short lifetime, to reliably identifying very persistent objects in cross-process communication such as client and server interfaces, manager entry-point vectors, and RPC objects. UUIDs are highly likely to be unique. UUIDs are also known as globally unique identifiers (GUIDs) and these terms are used interchangeably in the Microsoft protocol technical documents (TDs). Interchanging the usage of these terms does not imply or require a specific algorithm or mechanism to generate the UUID. Specifically, the use of this term does not imply or require that the algorithms described in [RFC4122] or [C706] must be used for generating the UUID.

user object: An object of class user. A user object is a security principal object; the principal is a person or service entity running on the computer. The shared secret allows the person or service entity to authenticate itself, as described in ([MS-AUTHSOD] section 1.1.1.1).

user profile: A collection of attributes on a user object used to customize an end-user experience.

WorldSid: A SID with the specific value of S-1-1-0.

MAY, SHOULD, MUST, SHOULD NOT, MUST NOT: These terms (in all caps) are used as defined in [RFC2119]. All statements of optional behavior use either MAY, SHOULD, or SHOULD NOT.

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