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# C# Operators

**Visual Studio .NET 2003**

C# provides a large set of operators, which are symbols that specify which operations to perform in an expression. C# predefines the usual arithmetic and logical operators, as well as a variety of others as shown in the following table. In addition, many operators can be overloaded by the user, thus changing their meaning when applied to a user-defined type.

Operator category | Operators |
---|---|

Arithmetic | + - * / % |

Logical (boolean and bitwise) | & | ^ ! ~ && || true false |

String concatenation | + |

Increment, decrement | ++ -- |

Shift | << >> |

Relational | == != < > <= >= |

Assignment | = += -= *= /= %= &= |= ^= <<= >>= |

Member access | . |

Indexing | [] |

Cast | () |

Conditional | ?: |

Delegate concatenation and removal | + - |

Object creation | new |

Type information | as is sizeof typeof |

Overflow exception control | checked unchecked |

Indirection and Address | * -> [] & |

## Arithmetic Overflow

The arithmetic operators (+, -, *, /) can produce results that are outside the range of possible values for the numeric type involved. You should refer to the *C# Language Reference* section on a particular operator for details, but in general:

- Integer arithmetic overflow either throws an OverflowException or discards the most significant bits of the result (see below). Integer division by zero always throws a DivideByZeroException.
- Floating-point arithmetic overflow or division by zero never throws an exception, because floating-point types are based on IEEE 754 and so have provisions for representing infinity and NaN (Not a Number).
- Decimal arithmetic overflow always throws an OverflowException.
**Decimal**division by zero always throws a DivideByZeroException.

When integer overflow occurs, what happens depends on the execution context, which can be checked or unchecked. In a checked context, an OverflowException is thrown. In an unchecked context, the most significant bits of the result are discarded and execution continues. Thus, C# gives you the choice of handling or ignoring overflow.

In addition to the arithmetic operators, integral-type to integral-type casts can cause overflow (for example, casting a long to an int) and are subject to checked or unchecked execution. Also note that bitwise operators and shift operators never cause overflow.

#### See Also

7.2.1 Operator precedence and associativity | Overloadable Operators | C# Keywords | C# Programmer's Reference