1.1 Glossary

This document uses the following terms:

access control entry (ACE): An entry in an access control list (ACL) that contains a set of user rights and a security identifier (SID) that identifies a principal for whom the rights are allowed, denied, or audited.

ASCII: The American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) is an 8-bit character-encoding scheme based on the English alphabet. ASCII codes represent text in computers, communications equipment, and other devices that work with text. ASCII refers to a single 8-bit ASCII character or an array of 8-bit ASCII characters with the high bit of each character set to zero.

AsyncUI: A notification type that can be used by server-resident notification sources to send informational alerts and user inquiries to a print client component that presents them to users and to execute client-resident printer driver code.

authenticated user identity: The principal that is provided by the underlying protocol. See retrieval of client identity in [MS-RPCE] sections and for details.

authentication: The ability of one entity to determine the identity of another entity.

authentication level: A numeric value indicating the level of authentication or message protection that remote procedure call (RPC) will apply to a specific message exchange. For more information, see [C706] section and [MS-RPCE].

bidirectional communication mode: A communication mode in which a server sends notifications to a single print client; the client replies to the notifications, and the server accepts that client's response.

bitmap: A collection of structures that contain a representation of a graphical image, a logical palette, dimensions and other information.

bitmap resource: A bitmap stored in a resource file that can be retrieved with a key.

default resource file: The resource file that is used by an AsyncUI client to look up icons, bitmaps, and string resources that are referenced in notifications that do not explicitly name a resource file. String resources that are present in the default resource file are specified in section 2.2.6.

discretionary access control list (DACL): An access control list (ACL) that is controlled by the owner of an object and that specifies the access particular users or groups can have to the object.

Domain Name System (DNS): A hierarchical, distributed database that contains mappings of domain names to various types of data, such as IP addresses. DNS enables the location of computers and services by user-friendly names, and it also enables the discovery of other information stored in the database.

driver-file name: The name of file that is part of a printer driver that was previously installed on an AsyncUI client via point-and-print. Driver-file names are relative to the directories that contain them.

HRESULT: An integer value that indicates the result or status of an operation. A particular HRESULT can have different meanings depending on the protocol using it. See [MS-ERREF] section 2.1 and specific protocol documents for further details.

icon: A graphical image used to supplement alphanumeric text in the visual identification of an object on a computer monitor. Icons are typically small, relative to the size of the area on which they are displayed.

icon resource: An icon stored in a resource file that can be retrieved with a key.

Interface Definition Language (IDL): The International Standards Organization (ISO) standard language for specifying the interface for remote procedure calls. For more information, see [C706] section 4.

Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4): An Internet protocol that has 32-bit source and destination addresses. IPv4 is the predecessor of IPv6.

Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6): A revised version of the Internet Protocol (IP) designed to address growth on the Internet. Improvements include a 128-bit IP address size, expanded routing capabilities, and support for authentication and privacy.

NetBIOS: A particular network transport that is part of the LAN Manager protocol suite. NetBIOS uses a broadcast communication style that was applicable to early segmented local area networks. A protocol family including name resolution, datagram, and connection services. For more information, see [RFC1001] and [RFC1002].

Network Data Representation (NDR): A specification that defines a mapping from Interface Definition Language (IDL) data types onto octet streams. NDR also refers to the runtime environment that implements the mapping facilities (for example, data provided to NDR). For more information, see [MS-RPCE] and [C706] section 14.

notification: A typed buffer of data sent by a print server to a print client as a result of an event on the server.

notification channel: A shareable, server-side object capable of routing notifications from a print server to appropriately registered print clients.

notification source: A print-server-resident software component, such as a printer driver, which generates notifications conforming to a particular notification type, or set of notification types, and processes any responses required by those notifications.

notification type: A set of notification and response data formats and their associated semantics. A notification type can be thought of as a higher-level protocol that is transported via the Print System Asynchronous Notification Protocol.

notification type identifier: A 128-bit value that either uniquely identifies a notification type or is a reserved value defined for special purposes by the Print Asynchronous Notification Protocol. Although defined in Interface Definition Language (IDL) as a GUID, a notification type identifier is considered to be an opaque 128-bit value. This protocol makes no assumptions about the format of those 128 bits or about the mechanism used by the creator of a notification type to assure uniqueness of its notification type identifier.

opnum: An operation number or numeric identifier that is used to identify a specific remote procedure call (RPC) method or a method in an interface. For more information, see [C706] section or [MS-RPCE].

position parameter replacement tags: Indicators within a string that can be replaced by parameter data during a formatting process. The indicators show which parameter of an ordered list should be used for the replacement. For more information, see [MSDN-FMT].

principal: An authenticated entity that initiates a message or channel in a distributed system.

print client: The application or user that is trying to apply an operation on the print system either by printing a job or by managing the data structures or devices maintained by the print system.

print queue: The logical entity to which jobs can be submitted for a particular print device. Associated with a print queue is a print driver, a user's print configuration in the form of a DEVMODE structure, and a system print configuration stored in the system registry.

print server: A machine that hosts the print system and all its different components.

printer driver: The interface component between the operating system and the printer device. It is responsible for processing the application data into a page description language (PDL) that can be interpreted by the printer device.

remote object: An unshared, server-side object capable of representing a registration.

remote procedure call (RPC): A communication protocol used primarily between client and server. The term has three definitions that are often used interchangeably: a runtime environment providing for communication facilities between computers (the RPC runtime); a set of request-and-response message exchanges between computers (the RPC exchange); and the single message from an RPC exchange (the RPC message).  For more information, see [C706].

resource file: A file that contains one or more icons, bitmaps, or string resources that can be retrieved with an integer key and used by other software components.

response: A typed buffer of data sent by the client to the server in response to a notification.

RPC context handle: A representation of state maintained between a remote procedure call (RPC) client and server. The state is maintained on the server on behalf of the client. An RPC context handle is created by the server and given to the client. The client passes the RPC context handle back to the server in method calls to assist in identifying the state. For more information, see [C706].

RPC dynamic endpoint: A network-specific server address that is requested and assigned at run time, as described in [C706].

security descriptor: A data structure containing the security information associated with a securable object. A security descriptor identifies an object's owner by its security identifier (SID). If access control is configured for the object, its security descriptor contains a discretionary access control list (DACL) with SIDs for the security principals who are allowed or denied access. Applications use this structure to set and query an object's security status. The security descriptor is used to guard access to an object as well as to control which type of auditing takes place when the object is accessed. The security descriptor format is specified in [MS-DTYP] section 2.4.6; a string representation of security descriptors, called SDDL, is specified in [MS-DTYP] section 2.5.1.

security identifier (SID): An identifier for security principals that is used to identify an account or a group. Conceptually, the SID is composed of an account authority portion (typically a domain) and a smaller integer representing an identity relative to the account authority, termed the relative identifier (RID). The SID format is specified in [MS-DTYP] section 2.4.2; a string representation of SIDs is specified in [MS-DTYP] section 2.4.2 and [MS-AZOD] section

security provider: A pluggable security module that is specified by the protocol layer above the remote procedure call (RPC) layer, and will cause the RPC layer to use this module to secure messages in a communication session with the server. The security provider is sometimes referred to as an authentication service. For more information, see [C706] and [MS-RPCE].

string resource: A string that is stored in a resource file and that can be retrieved with a key. A string resource is localizable into multiple languages. It is up to an AsyncUI client implementation to determine which language string to retrieve for a given key.

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP): A protocol used with the Internet Protocol (IP) to send data in the form of message units between computers over the Internet. TCP handles keeping track of the individual units of data (called packets) that a message is divided into for efficient routing through the Internet.

Unicode: A character encoding standard developed by the Unicode Consortium that represents almost all of the written languages of the world. The Unicode standard [UNICODE5.0.0/2007] provides three forms (UTF-8, UTF-16, and UTF-32) and seven schemes (UTF-8, UTF-16, UTF-16 BE, UTF-16 LE, UTF-32, UTF-32 LE, and UTF-32 BE).

unidirectional communication mode: A communication mode in which a server sends notifications to a client without requesting or accepting responses.

Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): A string that identifies a resource. The URI is an addressing mechanism defined in Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax [RFC3986].

Universal Naming Convention (UNC): A string format that specifies the location of a resource. For more information, see [MS-DTYP] section 2.2.57.

universally unique identifier (UUID): A 128-bit value. UUIDs can be used for multiple purposes, from tagging objects with an extremely short lifetime, to reliably identifying very persistent objects in cross-process communication such as client and server interfaces, manager entry-point vectors, and RPC objects. UUIDs are highly likely to be unique. UUIDs are also known as globally unique identifiers (GUIDs) and these terms are used interchangeably in the Microsoft protocol technical documents (TDs). Interchanging the usage of these terms does not imply or require a specific algorithm or mechanism to generate the UUID. Specifically, the use of this term does not imply or require that the algorithms described in [RFC4122] or [C706] must be used for generating the UUID.

user identity filter: A mechanism supported by this protocol that allows notifications to be directed to a particular user.

UTF-16LE: The Unicode Transformation Format - 16-bit, Little Endian encoding scheme. It is used to encode Unicode characters as a sequence of 16-bit codes, each encoded as two 8-bit bytes with the least-significant byte first.

UTF-16LE (Unicode Transformation Format, 16-bits, little-endian): The encoding scheme specified in [UNICODE5.0.0/2007] section 2.6 for encoding Unicode characters as a sequence of 16-bit codes, each encoded as two 8-bit bytes with the least-significant byte first.

XML: The Extensible Markup Language, as described in [XML1.0].

MAY, SHOULD, MUST, SHOULD NOT, MUST NOT: These terms (in all caps) are used as defined in [RFC2119]. All statements of optional behavior use either MAY, SHOULD, or SHOULD NOT.