Explicit Type Conversion Operator: ()

 

C++ allows explicit type conversion using syntax similar to the function-call syntax.

  
simple-type-name ( expression-list )  

A simple-type-name followed by an expression-list enclosed in parentheses constructs an object of the specified type using the specified expressions. The following example shows an explicit type conversion to type int:

int i = int( d );  

The following example uses a modified version of the Point class defined in Function-Call Results.

// expre_Explicit_Type_Conversion_Operator.cpp  
// compile with: /EHsc  
#include <iostream>  
  
using namespace std;  
class Point  
{  
public:  
    // Define default constructor.  
    Point() { _x = _y = 0; }  
    // Define another constructor.  
    Point( int X, int Y ) { _x = X; _y = Y; }  
  
    // Define "accessor" functions as  
    // reference types.  
    unsigned& x() { return _x; }  
    unsigned& y() { return _y; }  
    void Show()   { cout << "x = " << _x << ", "  
                         << "y = " << _y << "\n"; }  
private:  
    unsigned _x;  
    unsigned _y;  
};  
  
int main()  
{  
    Point Point1, Point2;  
  
    // Assign Point1 the explicit conversion  
    //  of ( 10, 10 ).  
    Point1 = Point( 10, 10 );  
  
    // Use x() as an l-value by assigning an explicit  
    //  conversion of 20 to type unsigned.  
    Point1.x() = unsigned( 20 );  
    Point1.Show();  
  
    // Assign Point2 the default Point object.  
    Point2 = Point();  
    Point2.Show();  
}  

x = 20, y = 10  
x = 0, y = 0  

Although the preceding example demonstrates explicit type conversion using constants, the same technique works to perform these conversions on objects. The following code fragment demonstrates this:

int i = 7;  
float d;  
  
d = float( i );  

Explicit type conversions can also be specified using the "cast" syntax. The previous example, rewritten using the cast syntax, is:

d = (float)i;  

Both cast and function-style conversions have the same results when converting from single values. However, in the function-style syntax, you can specify more than one argument for conversion. This difference is important for user-defined types. Consider a Point class and its conversions:

struct Point  
{  
    Point( short x, short y ) { _x = x; _y = y; }  
    ...  
    short _x, _y;  
};  
...  
Point pt = Point( 3, 10 );  

The preceding example, which uses function-style conversion, shows how to convert two values (one for x and one for y) to the user-defined type Point.

System_CAPS_ICON_caution.jpg Caution

Use the explicit type conversions with care, since they override the C++ compiler's built-in type checking.

The cast notation must be used for conversions to types that do not have a simple-type-name (pointer or reference types, for example). Conversion to types that can be expressed with a simple-type-name can be written in either form. See Type Specifiers for more information about what constitutes a simple-type-name.

Type definition within casts is illegal.

Postfix Expressions
C++ Operators
C++ Built-in Operators, Precedence and Associativity

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