This documentation is archived and is not being maintained.

CallingConvention Enumeration

Specifies the calling convention required to call methods implemented in unmanaged code.

Namespace:  System.Runtime.InteropServices
Assembly:  mscorlib (in mscorlib.dll)

public enum CallingConvention

Member nameDescription
Supported by the .NET Compact FrameworkSupported by the XNA FrameworkWinapiThis member is not actually a calling convention, but instead uses the default platform calling convention. For example, on Windows the default is StdCall and on Windows CE.NET it is Cdecl.
CdeclThe caller cleans the stack. This enables calling functions with varargs, which makes it appropriate to use for methods that accept a variable number of parameters, such as Printf.
StdCallThe callee cleans the stack. This is the default convention for calling unmanaged functions with platform invoke.
ThisCallThe first parameter is the this pointer and is stored in register ECX. Other parameters are pushed on the stack. This calling convention is used to call methods on classes exported from an unmanaged DLL.
FastCallThis calling convention is not supported.

Always use the CallingConvention enumeration rather than the CALLCONV enumeration to specify a calling convention in managed code. The latter exists only for the sake of COM definitions. The CallingConvention enumeration is used by DllImportAttribute and several classes in System.Reflection.Emit to dynamically emit platform invoke signatures.

The following example demonstrates how to apply the Cdecl calling convention, which you must use because the stack is cleaned up by the caller.

using System;
using System.Runtime.InteropServices;

public class LibWrap
// C# doesn't support varargs so all arguments must be explicitly defined. 
// CallingConvention.Cdecl must be used since the stack is  
// cleaned up by the caller. 

// int printf( const char *format [, argument]... )

[DllImport("msvcrt.dll", CharSet=CharSet.Unicode, CallingConvention=CallingConvention.Cdecl)]
public static extern int printf(String format, int i, double d); 

[DllImport("msvcrt.dll", CharSet=CharSet.Unicode, CallingConvention=CallingConvention.Cdecl)]
public static extern int printf(String format, int i, String s); 

public class App
    public static void Main()
        LibWrap.printf("\nPrint params: %i %f", 99, 99.99);
        LibWrap.printf("\nPrint params: %i %s", 99, "abcd");

Windows 7, Windows Vista, Windows XP SP2, Windows XP Media Center Edition, Windows XP Professional x64 Edition, Windows XP Starter Edition, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2000 SP4, Windows Millennium Edition, Windows 98, Windows CE, Windows Mobile for Smartphone, Windows Mobile for Pocket PC, Xbox 360, Zune

The .NET Framework and .NET Compact Framework do not support all versions of every platform. For a list of the supported versions, see .NET Framework System Requirements.

.NET Framework

Supported in: 3.5, 3.0, 2.0, 1.1, 1.0

.NET Compact Framework

Supported in: 3.5, 2.0, 1.0

XNA Framework

Supported in: 3.0, 2.0, 1.0