Directory Class

Directory Class

 

Exposes static methods for creating, moving, and enumerating through directories and subdirectories. This class cannot be inherited.

To browse the .NET Framework source code for this type, see the Reference Source.

Namespace:   System.IO
Assembly:  mscorlib (in mscorlib.dll)

System.Object
  System.IO.Directory

[ComVisibleAttribute(true)]
public static class Directory

NameDescription
System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticCreateDirectory(String)

Creates all directories and subdirectories in the specified path unless they already exist.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticCreateDirectory(String, DirectorySecurity)

Creates all the directories in the specified path, unless the already exist, applying the specified Windows security.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticDelete(String)

Deletes an empty directory from a specified path.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticDelete(String, Boolean)

Deletes the specified directory and, if indicated, any subdirectories and files in the directory.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticEnumerateDirectories(String)

Returns an enumerable collection of directory names in a specified path.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticEnumerateDirectories(String, String)

Returns an enumerable collection of directory names that match a search pattern in a specified path.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticEnumerateDirectories(String, String, SearchOption)

Returns an enumerable collection of directory names that match a search pattern in a specified path, and optionally searches subdirectories.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticEnumerateFiles(String)

Returns an enumerable collection of file names in a specified path.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticEnumerateFiles(String, String)

Returns an enumerable collection of file names that match a search pattern in a specified path.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticEnumerateFiles(String, String, SearchOption)

Returns an enumerable collection of file names that match a search pattern in a specified path, and optionally searches subdirectories.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticEnumerateFileSystemEntries(String)

Returns an enumerable collection of file names and directory names in a specified path.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticEnumerateFileSystemEntries(String, String)

Returns an enumerable collection of file names and directory names that match a search pattern in a specified path.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticEnumerateFileSystemEntries(String, String, SearchOption)

Returns an enumerable collection of file names and directory names that match a search pattern in a specified path, and optionally searches subdirectories.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticExists(String)

Determines whether the given path refers to an existing directory on disk.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticGetAccessControl(String)

Gets a DirectorySecurity object that encapsulates the access control list (ACL) entries for a specified directory.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticGetAccessControl(String, AccessControlSections)

Gets a DirectorySecurity object that encapsulates the specified type of access control list (ACL) entries for a specified directory.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticGetCreationTime(String)

Gets the creation date and time of a directory.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticGetCreationTimeUtc(String)

Gets the creation date and time, in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) format, of a directory.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticGetCurrentDirectory()

Gets the current working directory of the application.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticGetDirectories(String)

Returns the names of subdirectories (including their paths) in the specified directory.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticGetDirectories(String, String)

Returns the names of subdirectories (including their paths) that match the specified search pattern in the specified directory.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticGetDirectories(String, String, SearchOption)

Returns the names of the subdirectories (including their paths) that match the specified search pattern in the specified directory, and optionally searches subdirectories.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticGetDirectoryRoot(String)

Returns the volume information, root information, or both for the specified path.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticGetFiles(String)

Returns the names of files (including their paths) in the specified directory.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticGetFiles(String, String)

Returns the names of files (including their paths) that match the specified search pattern in the specified directory.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticGetFiles(String, String, SearchOption)

Returns the names of files (including their paths) that match the specified search pattern in the specified directory, using a value to determine whether to search subdirectories.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticGetFileSystemEntries(String)

Returns the names of all files and subdirectories in a specified path.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticGetFileSystemEntries(String, String)

Returns an array of file names and directory names that that match a search pattern in a specified path.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticGetFileSystemEntries(String, String, SearchOption)

Returns an array of all the file names and directory names that match a search pattern in a specified path, and optionally searches subdirectories.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticGetLastAccessTime(String)

Returns the date and time the specified file or directory was last accessed.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticGetLastAccessTimeUtc(String)

Returns the date and time, in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) format, that the specified file or directory was last accessed.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticGetLastWriteTime(String)

Returns the date and time the specified file or directory was last written to.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticGetLastWriteTimeUtc(String)

Returns the date and time, in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) format, that the specified file or directory was last written to.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticGetLogicalDrives()

Retrieves the names of the logical drives on this computer in the form "<drive letter>:\".

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticGetParent(String)

Retrieves the parent directory of the specified path, including both absolute and relative paths.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticMove(String, String)

Moves a file or a directory and its contents to a new location.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticSetAccessControl(String, DirectorySecurity)

Applies access control list (ACL) entries described by a DirectorySecurity object to the specified directory.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticSetCreationTime(String, DateTime)

Sets the creation date and time for the specified file or directory.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticSetCreationTimeUtc(String, DateTime)

Sets the creation date and time, in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) format, for the specified file or directory.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticSetCurrentDirectory(String)

Sets the application's current working directory to the specified directory.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticSetLastAccessTime(String, DateTime)

Sets the date and time the specified file or directory was last accessed.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticSetLastAccessTimeUtc(String, DateTime)

Sets the date and time, in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) format, that the specified file or directory was last accessed.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticSetLastWriteTime(String, DateTime)

Sets the date and time a directory was last written to.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticSetLastWriteTimeUtc(String, DateTime)

Sets the date and time, in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) format, that a directory was last written to.

System_CAPS_noteNote

To view the .NET Framework source code for this type, see the Reference Source. You can browse through the source code online, download the reference for offline viewing, and step through the sources (including patches and updates) during debugging; see instructions.

Use the Directory class for typical operations such as copying, moving, renaming, creating, and deleting directories.

The static methods of the Directory class perform security checks on all methods. If you are going to reuse an object several times, consider using the corresponding instance method of DirectoryInfo instead, because the security check will not always be necessary.

If you are performing only one directory-related action, it might be more efficient to use a static Directory method rather than a corresponding DirectoryInfo instance method. Most Directory methods require the path to the directory that you are manipulating.

System_CAPS_noteNote

In members that accept a string path parameter, that path must be well-formed or an exception is raised. For example, if a path is fully qualified but begins with a space (" c:\temp"), the path string isn't trimmed, so the path is considered malformed and an exception is raised. In addition, a path or a combination of paths cannot be fully qualified twice. For example, "c:\temp c:\windows" also raises an exception. Ensure that your paths are well-formed when using methods that accept a path string. For more information see Path.

In members that accept a path, the path can refer to a file or a directory. You can use a full path, a relative path, or a Universal Naming Convention (UNC) path for a server and share name. For example, all the following are acceptable paths:

  • "c:\\MyDir" in C#, or "c:\MyDir" in Visual Basic.

  • "MyDir\\MySubdir" in C#, or "MyDir\MySubDir" in Visual Basic.

  • "\\\\MyServer\\MyShare" in C#, or "\\MyServer\MyShare" in Visual Basic.

By default, full read/write access to new directories is granted to all users. However, the app must have the correct security to access existing directories.

To demand permissions for a directory and all its subdirectories, end the path string with the directory separator character. (For example, "C:\Temp\" grants access to C:\Temp\ and all its subdirectories.) To demand permissions only for a specific directory, end the path string with a period. (For example, "C:\Temp\." grants access only to C:\Temp\, not to its subdirectories.)

In members that accept a searchPattern parameter, the search string can be any combination of literal characters and two wildcard characters; * and ?. This parameter does not recognize regular expressions. For more information, see the EnumerateDirectories(String, String) method or any other method that uses the searchPattern parameter.

For a list of common I/O tasks, see Common I/O Tasks.

Directory and DirectoryInfo are not supported for use in Windows Store apps. For information about how to access files and folders in Windows Store apps, see Accessing data and files (Windows Store apps).

The following example shows how to retrieve all the text files from a directory and move them to a new directory. After the files are moved, they no longer exist in the original directory.

using System;
using System.IO;

namespace ConsoleApplication
{
    class Program
    {
        static void Main(string[] args)
        {
            string sourceDirectory = @"C:\current";
            string archiveDirectory = @"C:\archive";

            try
            {
                var txtFiles = Directory.EnumerateFiles(sourceDirectory, "*.txt");

                foreach (string currentFile in txtFiles)
                {
                    string fileName = currentFile.Substring(sourceDirectory.Length + 1);
                    Directory.Move(currentFile, Path.Combine(archiveDirectory, fileName));
                }
            }
            catch (Exception e)
            {
                Console.WriteLine(e.Message);
            }
        }
    }
}

The following example demonstrates how to use the EnumerateFiles method to retrieve a collection of text files from a directory, and then use that collection in a query to find all the lines that contain "Example".

using System;
using System.IO;
using System.Linq;

namespace ConsoleApplication
{
    class Program
    {
        static void Main(string[] args)
        {
            string archiveDirectory = @"C:\archive";

            var files = from retrievedFile in Directory.EnumerateFiles(archiveDirectory, "*.txt", SearchOption.AllDirectories)
                        from line in File.ReadLines(retrievedFile)
                        where line.Contains("Example")
                        select new
                        {
                            File = retrievedFile,
                            Line = line
                        };

            foreach (var f in files)
            {
                Console.WriteLine("{0} contains {1}", f.File, f.Line);
            }
            Console.WriteLine("{0} lines found.", files.Count().ToString());
        }
    }
}

The following example demonstrates how to move a directory and all its files to a new directory. The original directory no longer exists after it has been moved.

using System;
using System.IO;

namespace ConsoleApplication
{
    class Program
    {
        static void Main(string[] args)
        {
            string sourceDirectory = @"C:\source";
            string destinationDirectory = @"C:\destination";

            try
            {
                Directory.Move(sourceDirectory, destinationDirectory);  
            }
            catch (Exception e)
            {
                Console.WriteLine(e.Message);
            }
        }
    }
}

Universal Windows Platform
Available since 10
.NET Framework
Available since 1.1
Silverlight
Available since 2.0
Windows Phone Silverlight
Available since 7.0

Any public static (Shared in Visual Basic) members of this type are thread safe. Any instance members are not guaranteed to be thread safe.

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