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DataAdapter.Update Method

Calls the respective INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE statements for each inserted, updated, or deleted row in the specified DataSet from a DataTable named "Table".

[Visual Basic]
Public MustOverride Function Update( _
   ByVal dataSet As DataSet _
) As Integer Implements IDataAdapter.Update
public abstract int Update(
 DataSet dataSet
public: virtual int Update(
 DataSet* dataSet
) = 0;
public abstract function Update(
   dataSet : DataSet
) : int;


The DataSet used to update the data source.

Return Value

The number of rows successfully updated from the DataSet.




Exception Type Condition
SystemException A source table could not be found.
DBConcurrencyException An attempt to execute an INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE statement resulted in zero records affected.


When an application calls the Update method, the DataAdapter examines the RowState property, and executes the required INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE statements iteratively for each row, based on the order of the indexes configured in the DataSet. For example, Update might execute a DELETE statement, followed by an INSERT statement, and then another DELETE statement, due to the ordering of the rows in the DataTable.

It should be noted that these statements are not performed as a batch process; each row is updated individually. An application can call the GetChanges method in situations where you must control the sequence of statement types (for example, INSERTs before UPDATEs). For more information, see Updating the Database with a DataAdapter and the DataSet.

If INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE statements have not been specified, the Update method generates an exception. However, you can create a SqlCommandBuilder or OleDbCommandBuilder object to automatically generate SQL statements for single-table updates if you set the SelectCommand property of a .NET Framework data provider. Then, any additional SQL statements that you do not set are generated by the CommandBuilder. This generation logic requires key column information to be present in the DataSet. For more information see Automatically Generated Commands.

The Update method retrieves rows from the table listed in the first mapping before performing an update. The Update then refreshes the row using the value of the UpdatedRowSource property. Any additional rows returned are ignored.

After any data is loaded back into the DataSet, the OnRowUpdated event is raised, allowing the user to inspect the reconciled DataSet row and any output parameters returned by the command. After a row updates successfully, the changes to that row are accepted.

When using Update, the order of execution is as follows:

  1. The values in the DataRow are moved to the parameter values.
  2. The OnRowUpdating event is raised.
  3. The command executes.
  4. If the command is set to FirstReturnedRecord, then the first returned result is placed in the DataRow.
  5. If there are output parameters, they are placed in the DataRow.
  6. The OnRowUpdated event is raised.
  7. AcceptChanges is called.

Each command associated with the DataAdapter usually has a parameters collection associated with it. Parameters are mapped to the current row through the SourceColumn and SourceVersion properties of a .NET data provider's Parameter class. SourceColumn refers to a DataTable column that the DataAdapter references to obtain parameter values for the current row.

SourceColumn refers to the unmapped column name before any table mappings have been applied. If SourceColumn refers to a nonexistent column, the action taken depends on one of the following MissingMappingAction values.

Enumeration Value Action Taken
MissingMappingAction.Passthrough Use the source column names and table names in the DataSet if no mapping is present.
MissingMappingAction.Ignore A SystemException is generated. When the mappings are explicitly set, a missing mapping for an input parameter is usually the result of an error.
MissingMappingAction.Error A SystemException is generated.

The SourceColumn property is also used to map the value for output or input/output parameters back to the DataSet. An exception is generated if it refers to a nonexistent column.

The SourceVersion property of a .NET data provider's Parameter class determines whether to use the Original, Current, or Proposed version of the column value. This capability is often used to include original values in the WHERE clause of an UPDATE statement to check for optimistic concurrency violations.


[Visual Basic, C#, C++] The following example uses the derived class, OleDbDataAdapter, to Update the data source.

[Visual Basic] 
Public Function CreateCmdsAndUpdate(myDataSet As DataSet, myConnection As String, mySelectQuery As String, myTableName As String) As DataSet
    Dim myConn As New OleDbConnection(myConnection)
    Dim myDataAdapter As New OleDbDataAdapter()
    myDataAdapter.SelectCommand = New OleDbCommand(mySelectQuery, myConn)
    Dim custCB As OleDbCommandBuilder = New OleDbCommandBuilder(myDataAdapter)


    Dim custDS As DataSet = New DataSet

    ' Code to modify data in DataSet here 

    ' Without the OleDbCommandBuilder this line would fail.


    CreateCmdsAndUpdate = custDS
End Function 'SelectOleDbSrvRows

public DataSet CreateCmdsAndUpdate(DataSet myDataSet,string myConnection,string mySelectQuery,string myTableName) 
    OleDbConnection myConn = new OleDbConnection(myConnection);
    OleDbDataAdapter myDataAdapter = new OleDbDataAdapter();
    myDataAdapter.SelectCommand = new OleDbCommand(mySelectQuery, myConn);
    OleDbCommandBuilder custCB = new OleDbCommandBuilder(myDataAdapter);


    DataSet custDS = new DataSet();

    //code to modify data in dataset here

    //Without the OleDbCommandBuilder this line would fail


    return custDS;

DataSet* CreateCmdsAndUpdate(DataSet* /*myDataSet*/,String* myConnection,String* mySelectQuery,String* /*myTableName*/) 
    OleDbConnection* myConn = new OleDbConnection(myConnection);
    OleDbDataAdapter* myDataAdapter = new OleDbDataAdapter();
    myDataAdapter->SelectCommand = new OleDbCommand(mySelectQuery, myConn);
    OleDbCommandBuilder* custCB = new OleDbCommandBuilder(myDataAdapter);


    DataSet* custDS = new DataSet();

    //code to modify data in dataset here

    //Without the OleDbCommandBuilder this line would fail


    return custDS;

[JScript] No example is available for JScript. To view a Visual Basic, C#, or C++ example, click the Language Filter button Language Filter in the upper-left corner of the page.


Platforms: Windows 98, Windows NT 4.0, Windows Millennium Edition, Windows 2000, Windows XP Home Edition, Windows XP Professional, Windows Server 2003 family, .NET Compact Framework

See Also

DataAdapter Class | DataAdapter Members | System.Data.Common Namespace