Export (0) Print
Expand All

Creating Windows Applications Using Callbacks 

In most asynchronous processing scenarios, you want to start a database operation and continue running other processes without waiting for the database operation to complete. However, many scenarios require doing something once the database operation has ended. In a Windows application, for example, you may want to delegate the long-running operation to a background thread while allowing the user interface thread to remain responsive. However, when the database operation is complete, you want to use the results to populate the form. This type of scenario is best implemented with a callback.

You define a callback by specifying an AsyncCallback delegate in the BeginExecuteNonQuery, BeginExecuteReader, or BeginExecuteXmlReader method. The delegate is called when the operation is complete. You can pass the delegate a reference to the SqlCommand itself, making it easy to access the SqlCommand object and call the appropriate End method without having to use a global variable.

Example

The following Windows application demonstrates the use of the BeginExecuteNonQuery method, executing a Transact-SQL statement that includes a delay of a few seconds (emulating a long-running command).

This example demonstrates a number of important techniques, including calling a method that interacts with the form from a separate thread. In addition, this example demonstrates how you must block users from concurrently executing a command multiple times, and how you must ensure that the form does not close before the callback procedure is called.

To set up this example, create a new Windows application. Place a Button control and two Label controls on the form (accepting the default name for each control). Add the following code to the form's class, modifying the connection string as necessary for your environment.

[Visual Basic]

' Add these to the top of the class:
Imports System
Imports System.Data
Imports System.Data.SqlClient

' Add this code to the form's class:

    ' You'll need this delegate in order to display text from a 
    ' thread other than the form's thread. See the HandleCallback
    ' procedure for more information.
    ' This same delegate matches both the DisplayStatus 
    ' and DisplayResults methods.
    Private Delegate Sub DisplayInfoDelegate(ByVal Text As String)

    ' This flag ensures that the user doesn't attempt
    ' to restart the command or close the form while the 
    ' asynchronous command is executing.
    Private isExecuting As Boolean

    ' This example maintains the connection object 
    ' externally, so that it's available for closing.
    Private connection As SqlConnection

    Private Function GetConnectionString() As String
        ' To avoid storing the connection string in your code,            
        ' you can retrieve it from a configuration file. 

        ' If you have not included "Asynchronous Processing=true"
        ' in the connection string, the command will not be able
        ' to execute asynchronously.
        Return "Data Source=(local);Integrated Security=SSPI;" & _
          "Initial Catalog=AdventureWorks;" & _
          "Asynchronous Processing=true"
    End Function

    Private Sub DisplayStatus(ByVal Text As String)
        Me.Label1.Text = Text
    End Sub

    Private Sub DisplayResults(ByVal Text As String)
        Me.Label1.Text = Text
        DisplayStatus("Ready")
    End Sub

    Private Sub Form1_FormClosing(ByVal sender As Object, _
        ByVal e As System.Windows.Forms.FormClosingEventArgs) _
        Handles Me.FormClosing
        If isExecuting Then
            MessageBox.Show(Me, "Can't close the form until " & _
             "the pending asynchronous command has completed. " & _
             "Please wait...")
            e.Cancel = True
        End If
    End Sub

    Private Sub Button1_Click( _
        ByVal sender As System.Object, _
        ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles Button1.Click
        If isExecuting Then
            MessageBox.Show(Me, _
                "Already executing. " & _
                "Please wait until the current query " & _
                "has completed.")
        Else
            Dim command As SqlCommand
            Try
                DisplayResults("")
                DisplayStatus("Connecting...")
                connection = New SqlConnection(GetConnectionString())
                ' To emulate a long-running query, wait for 
                ' a few seconds before working with the data.
                ' This command doesn't do much, but that's the point--
                ' it doesn't change your data, in the long run.
                Dim commandText As String = _
                    "WAITFOR DELAY '0:0:05';" & _
                    "UPDATE Production.Product " & _
                    "SET ReorderPoint = ReorderPoint + 1 " & _
                    "WHERE ReorderPoint Is Not Null;" & _
                    "UPDATE Production.Product " & _
                    "SET ReorderPoint = ReorderPoint - 1 " & _
                    "WHERE ReorderPoint Is Not Null"

                command = New SqlCommand(commandText, connection)
                connection.Open()

                DisplayStatus("Executing...")
                isExecuting = True
                ' Although it's not required that you pass the 
                ' SqlCommand object as the second parameter in the 
                ' BeginExecuteNonQuery call, doing so makes it easier
                ' to call EndExecuteNonQuery in the callback procedure.
                Dim callback As New _
                      AsyncCallback(AddressOf HandleCallback)

                ' Once the BeginExecuteNonQuery method is called,
                ' the code continues--and the user can interact with
                ' the form--while the server executes the query.

                command.BeginExecuteNonQuery(callback, command)

            Catch ex As Exception
                isExecuting = False
                DisplayStatus( _
                    String.Format("Ready (last error: {0})", _
                    ex.Message))
                If connection IsNot Nothing Then
                    connection.Close()
                End If
            End Try
        End If
    End Sub

    Private Sub HandleCallback(ByVal result As IAsyncResult)
        Try
            ' Retrieve the original command object, passed
            ' to this procedure in the AsyncState property
            ' of the IAsyncResult parameter.
            Dim command As SqlCommand = _
                CType(result.AsyncState, SqlCommand)
            Dim rowCount As Integer = _
                command.EndExecuteNonQuery(result)
            Dim rowText As String = " rows affected."
            If rowCount = 1 Then
                rowText = " row affected."
            End If
            rowText = rowCount & rowText

            ' You may not interact with the form and its contents
            ' from a different thread, and this callback procedure
            ' is all but guaranteed to be running from a different 
            ' thread than the form. Therefore you cannot simply call 
            ' code that displays the results, like this:
            ' DisplayResults(rowText)

            ' Instead, you must call the procedure from the form's
            ' thread. One simple way to accomplish this is to call 
            ' the Invoke method of the form, which calls the delegate 
            ' you supply from the form's thread. 
            Dim del As New _
                DisplayInfoDelegate(AddressOf DisplayResults)
            Me.Invoke(del, rowText)

        Catch ex As Exception
            ' Because you're now running code in a separate thread, 
            ' if you don't handle the exception here, none of your 
            ' other code will catch the exception. Because none of 
            ' your code is on the call stack in this thread, there's 
            ' nothing higher up the stack to catch the exception if 
            ' you don't handle it here. You can either log the 
            ' exception or invoke a delegate (as in the non-error 
            ' case in this example) to display the error on the form. 
            ' In no case can you simply display the error without 
            ' executing a delegate as in the Try block here.

            ' You can create the delegate instance as you 
            ' invoke it, like this:
            Me.Invoke(New _
                DisplayInfoDelegate(AddressOf DisplayStatus), _
                String.Format("Ready(last error: {0}", ex.Message))
        Finally
            isExecuting = False
            If connection IsNot Nothing Then
                connection.Close()
            End If
        End Try
    End Sub
// Add these to the top of the class, if they're not already there:
using System;
using System.Data;
using System.Data.SqlClient;

// Hook up the form's Load event handler (you can double-click on 
// the form's design surface in Visual Studio), and then add 
// this code to the form's class:

// You'll need this delegate in order to display text from a thread
// other than the form's thread. See the HandleCallback
// procedure for more information.
// This same delegate matches both the DisplayStatus 
// and DisplayResults methods.
private delegate void DisplayInfoDelegate(string Text);

// This flag ensures that the user doesn't attempt
// to restart the command or close the form while the 
// asynchronous command is executing.
private bool isExecuting;

// This example maintains the connection object 
// externally, so that it's available for closing.
private SqlConnection connection;

private static string GetConnectionString()
{
    // To avoid storing the connection string in your code,            
    // you can retrieve it from a configuration file. 

    // If you have not included "Asynchronous Processing=true" in the
    // connection string, the command will not be able
    // to execute asynchronously.
    return "Data Source=(local);Integrated Security=SSPI;" +
    "Initial Catalog=AdventureWorks; Asynchronous Processing=true";
}

private void DisplayStatus(string Text)
{
    this.label1.Text = Text;
}

private void DisplayResults(string Text)
{
    this.label1.Text = Text;
    DisplayStatus("Ready");
}

private void Form1_FormClosing(object sender, System.Windows.Forms.FormClosingEventArgs e)
{
    if (isExecuting)
    {
        MessageBox.Show(this, "Can't close the form until " +
        "the pending asynchronous command has completed. Please " +
        wait...");
        e.Cancel = true;
    }
}

private void button1_Click(object sender, System.EventArgs e)
{
    if (isExecuting)
    {
        MessageBox.Show(this, "Already executing. Please wait until " +
        "the current query has completed.");
    }
    else
    {
        SqlCommand command = null;
        try
        {
            DisplayResults("");
            DisplayStatus("Connecting...");
            connection = new SqlConnection(GetConnectionString());
            // To emulate a long-running query, wait for 
            // a few seconds before working with the data.
            // This command doesn't do much, but that's the point--
            // it doesn't change your data, in the long run.
            string commandText =
                "WAITFOR DELAY '0:0:05';" +
                "UPDATE Production.Product " +
                "SET ReorderPoint = ReorderPoint + 1 " +
                "WHERE ReorderPoint Is Not Null;" +
                "UPDATE Production.Product " +
                "SET ReorderPoint = ReorderPoint - 1 " +
                "WHERE ReorderPoint Is Not Null";

            command = new SqlCommand(commandText, connection);
            connection.Open();

            DisplayStatus("Executing...");
            isExecuting = true;
            // Although it's not required that you pass the 
            // SqlCommand object as the second parameter in the 
            // BeginExecuteNonQuery call, doing so makes it easier
            // to call EndExecuteNonQuery in the callback procedure.
            AsyncCallback callback = new AsyncCallback(HandleCallback);

            // Once the BeginExecuteNonQuery method is called,
            // the code continues--and the user can interact with
            // the form--while the server executes the query.
            command.BeginExecuteNonQuery(callback, command);

        }
        catch (Exception ex)
        {
            isExecuting = false;
            DisplayStatus( 
             string.Format("Ready (last error: {0})", ex.Message));
            if (connection != null)
            {
                connection.Close();
            }
        }
    }
}

private void HandleCallback(IAsyncResult result)
{
    try
    {
        // Retrieve the original command object, passed
        // to this procedure in the AsyncState property
        // of the IAsyncResult parameter.
        SqlCommand command = (SqlCommand)result.AsyncState;
        int rowCount = command.EndExecuteNonQuery(result);
        string rowText = " rows affected.";
        if (rowCount == 1)
        {
            rowText = " row affected.";
        }
        rowText = rowCount + rowText;

        // You may not interact with the form and its contents
        // from a different thread, and this callback procedure
        // is all but guaranteed to be running from a different thread
        // than the form. Therefore you cannot simply call code that 
        // displays the results, like this:
        // DisplayResults(rowText)

        // Instead, you must call the procedure from the form's thread.
        // One simple way to accomplish this is to call the Invoke
        // method of the form, which calls the delegate you supply
        // from the form's thread. 
        DisplayInfoDelegate del = 
         new DisplayInfoDelegate(DisplayResults);
        this.Invoke(del, rowText);
    }
    catch (Exception ex)
    {
        // Because you're now running code in a separate thread, 
        // if you don't handle the exception here, none of your other
        // code will catch the exception. Because none of your
        // code is on the call stack in this thread, there's nothing
        // higher up the stack to catch the exception if you don't 
        // handle it here. You can either log the exception or 
        // invoke a delegate (as in the non-error case in this 
        // example) to display the error on the form. In no case
        // can you simply display the error without executing a 
        // delegate as in the try block here. 

        // You can create the delegate instance as you 
        // invoke it, like this:
        this.Invoke(new DisplayInfoDelegate(DisplayStatus),
        String.Format("Ready(last error: {0}", ex.Message));
    }
    finally
    {
        isExecuting = false;
        if (connection != null)
        {
            connection.Close();
        }
    }
}

private void Form1_Load(object sender, System.EventArgs e)
{
    this.button1.Click += new System.EventHandler(this.button1_Click);
    this.FormClosing += new System.Windows.Forms.
        FormClosingEventHandler(this.Form1_FormClosing);
}

See Also

Community Additions

ADD
Show:
© 2015 Microsoft