# C# Operators

**Visual Studio 2008**

Updated: July 2008

C# provides a large set of operators, which are symbols that specify which operations to perform in an expression. Operations on integral types such as ==, !=, <, >, <=, >=, binary +, binary -, ^, &, |, ~, ++, --, and sizeof() are generally allowed on enumerations. In addition, many operators can be overloaded by the user, thus changing their meaning when applied to a user-defined type.

The following table lists the C# operators grouped in order of precedence. Operators within each group have equal precedence.

Operator category | Operators |
---|---|

Primary | |

Unary | |

Multiplicative | |

Additive | |

Shift | |

Relational and type testing | |

Equality | |

Logical AND | |

Logical XOR | |

Logical OR | |

Conditional AND | |

Conditional OR | |

Conditional | |

Assignment | |

Null-coalescing | |

Lambda |

The arithmetic operators (+, -, *, /) can produce results that are outside the range of possible values for the numeric type involved. You should refer to the section on a particular operator for details, but in general:

Integer arithmetic overflow either throws an OverflowException or discards the most significant bits of the result. Integer division by zero always throws a DivideByZeroException.

Floating-point arithmetic overflow or division by zero never throws an exception, because floating-point types are based on IEEE 754 and so have provisions for representing infinity and NaN (Not a Number).

Decimal arithmetic overflow always throws an OverflowException. Decimal division by zero always throws a DivideByZeroException.

When integer overflow occurs, what happens depends on the execution context, which can be checked or unchecked. In a checked context, an OverflowException is thrown. In an unchecked context, the most significant bits of the result are discarded and execution continues. Thus, C# gives you the choice of handling or ignoring overflow.

In addition to the arithmetic operators, integral-type to integral-type casts can cause overflow, for example, casting a long to an int, and are subject to checked or unchecked execution. However, bitwise operators and shift operators never cause overflow.