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Important This document may not represent best practices for current development, links to downloads and other resources may no longer be valid. Current recommended version can be found here.

Alphabetical Function Reference 

This section is an alphabetical reference to the routines in the C Run-Time (CRT) Library. To find a CRT routine based on functionality, see Run-Time Routines by Category.

__isascii, iswascii

__max

__min

__toascii

_access, _waccess

_access_s, _waccess_s

_aligned_free

_aligned_malloc

_aligned_offset_malloc

_aligned_offset_realloc

_aligned_realloc

_alloca

_ASSERT, _ASSERTE Macros

_atodbl, _atodbl_l, _atoldbl, _atoldbl_l, _atoflt _atoflt_l

_atoi64, _atoi64_l, _wtoi64, _wtoi64_l

_beginthread, _beginthreadex

_byteswap_uint64, _byteswap_ulong, _byteswap_ushort

_cabs

_calloc_dbg

_cexit, _c_exit

_cgets, _cgetws

_cgets_s, _cgetws_s

_chdir, _wchdir

_chdrive

_chgsign, _chgsignl

_chmod, _wchmod

_chsize

_chsize_s

_clear87, _clearfp

_close

_commit

_configthreadlocale

_control87, _controlfp, __control87_2

_controlfp_s

_copysign, _copysignl

_countof Macro

_cprintf, _cprintf_l, _cwprintf, _cwprintf_l

_cprintf_p, _cprintf_p_l, _cwprintf_p, _cwprintf_p_l

_cprintf_s, _cprintf_s_l, _cwprintf_s, _cwprintf_s_l

_cputs, _cputws

_creat, _wcreat

_create_locale

_CrtCheckMemory

_CrtDbgBreak

_CrtDbgReport, _CrtDbgReportW

_CrtDoForAllClientObjects

_CrtDumpMemoryLeaks

_CrtGetAllocHook

_CrtGetDumpClient

_CrtGetReportHook

_CrtIsMemoryBlock

_CrtIsValidHeapPointer

_CrtIsValidPointer

_CrtMemCheckpoint

_CrtMemDifference

_CrtMemDumpAllObjectsSince

_CrtMemDumpStatistics

_CrtReportBlockType

_CrtSetAllocHook

_CrtSetBreakAlloc

_CrtSetDbgFlag

_CrtSetDebugFillThreshold

_CrtSetDumpClient

_CrtSetReportFile

_CrtSetReportHook

_CrtSetReportHook2, _CrtSetReportHookW2

_CrtSetReportMode

_cscanf, _cscanf_l, _cwscanf, _cwscanf_l

_cscanf_s, _cscanf_s_l, _cwscanf_s, _cwscanf_s_l

_cwait

_dup, _dup2

_dupenv_s, _wdupenv_s

_dupenv_s_dbg, _wdupenv_s_dbg

_ecvt

_ecvt_s

_endthread, _endthreadex

_eof

_exec, _wexec Functions

_execl, _wexecl

_execle, _wexecle

_execlp, _wexeclp

_execlpe, _wexeclpe

_execv, _wexecv

_execve, _wexecve

_execvp, _wexecvp

_execvpe, _wexecvpe

_expand

_expand_dbg

_fclose_nolock

_fcvt

_fcvt_s

_fdopen, _wfdopen

_fflush_nolock

_fgetc_nolock, _fgetwc_nolock

_fgetchar, _fgetwchar

_filelength, _filelengthi64

_fileno

_find, _wfind Functions

_findclose

_findfirst, _wfindfirst

_findnext, _wfindnext

_finite

_flushall

_fpclass

_fpieee_flt

_fpreset

_fprintf_p, _fprintf_p_l, _fwprintf_p, _fwprintf_p_l

_fputc_nolock, _fputwc_nolock

_fputchar, _fputwchar

_fread_nolock

_free_dbg

_free_locale

_freea

_fseek_nolock, _fseeki64_nolock

_fsopen, _wfsopen

_fstat, _fstat32, _fstat64, _fstati64, _fstat32i64, _fstat64i32

_ftell_nolock, _ftelli64_nolock

_ftime, _ftime32, _ftime64

_ftime_s, _ftime32_s, _ftime64_s

_fullpath, _wfullpath

_fullpath_dbg, _wfullpath_dbg

_futime, _futime32, _futime64

_fwrite_nolock

_gcvt

_gcvt_s

_get_amblksiz

_get_current_locale

_get_daylight

_get_doserrno

_get_dstbias

_get_errno

_get_fileinfo

_get_fmode

_get_heap_handle

_get_osfhandle

_get_osplatform

_get_osver

_get_output_format

_get_pgmptr

_get_printf_count_output

_get_sbh_threshold

_get_terminate

_get_timezone

_get_tzname

_get_unexpected

_get_winmajor

_get_winminor

_get_winver

_get_wpgmptr

_getc_nolock, _getwc_nolock

_getch, _getwch

_getch_nolock, _getwch_nolock

_getchar_nolock, _getwchar_nolock

_getche, _getwche

_getche_nolock, _getwche_nolock

_getcwd, _wgetcwd

_getcwd_dbg, _wgetcwd_dbg

_getdcwd, _wgetdcwd

_getdcwd_dbg, _wgetdcwd_dbg

_getdcwd_nolock, _wgetdcwd_nolock

_getdiskfree

_getdrive

_getdrives

_getmaxstdio

_getmbcp

_getpid

_getw

_gmtime_s, _gmtime32_s, _gmtime64_s

_heapadd

_heapchk

_heapmin

_heapset

_heapwalk

_hypot, hypotf

_inp, _inpw, _inpd

_isatty

_isctype, iswctype, _isctype_l, _iswctype_l

_ismbb Routines

_ismbbalnum, _ismbbalnum_l

_ismbbalpha, _ismbbalpha_l

_ismbbgraph, _ismbbgraph_l

_ismbbkalnum, _ismbbkalnum_l

_ismbbkana, _ismbbkana_l

_ismbbkprint, _ismbbkprint_l

_ismbbkpunct, _ismbbkpunct_l

_ismbblead, _ismbblead_l

_ismbbprint, _ismbbprint_l

_ismbbpunct, _ismbbpunct_l

_ismbbtrail, _ismbbtrail_l

_ismbc Routines

_ismbcalnum, _ismbcalnum_l, _ismbcalpha, _ismbcalpha_, _ismbcdigit, _ismbcdigit_l

_ismbcgraph, _ismbcgraph_l, _ismbcprint, _ismbcprint_l, _ismbcpunct, _ismbcpunct_l, _ismbcspace, _ismbcspace_l

_ismbchira, _ismbchira_l, _ismbckata, _ismbckata_l

_ismbcl0, _ismbcl0_l, _ismbcl1, _ismbcl1_l, _ismbcl2, _ismbcl2_l

_ismbclegal, _ismbclegal_l, _ismbcsymbol, _ismbcsymbol_l

_ismbclower, _ismbclower_l, _ismbcupper, _ismbcupper_l

_ismbslead, _ismbstrail, _ismbslead_l, _ismbstrail_l

_isnan

_itoa, _i64toa, _ui64toa, _itow, _i64tow, _ui64tow

_itoa_s, _i64toa_s, _ui64toa_s, _itow_s, _i64tow_s, _ui64tow_s

_kbhit

_lfind

_lfind_s

localtime_s, _localtime32_s, _localtime64_s

_lock_file

_locking

_logb

_lrotl, _lrotr

_lsearch

_lsearch_s

_lseek, _lseeki64

_ltoa, _ltow

_ltoa_s, _ltow_s

_makepath, _wmakepath

_makepath_s, _wmakepath_s

_malloc_dbg

_malloca

_matherr

_mbbtombc, _mbbtombc_l

_mbbtype, _mbbtype_l

_mbccpy, _mbccpy_l

_mbccpy_s, _mbccpy_s_l

_mbcjistojms, _mbcjistojms_l, _mbcjmstojis, _mbcjmstojis_l

_mbclen, mblen, _mblen_l

_mbctohira, _mbctohira_l, _mbctokata, _mbctokata_l

_mbctolower, _mbctolower_l, _mbctoupper, _mbctoupper_l

_mbctombb, _mbctombb_l

_mbsbtype, _mbsbtype_l

_mbsdec, _mbsdec_l, _strdec, _wcsdec

_mbsinc, _mbsinc_l, _strinc, _wcsinc

_mbsnbcat, _mbsnbcat_l

_mbsnbcat_s, _mbsnbcat_s_l

_mbsnbcmp, _mbsnbcmp_l

_mbsnbcnt, _mbsnbcnt_l, _mbsnccnt, _mbsnccnt_l, _strncnt, _wcsncnt

_mbsnbcoll, _mbsnbcoll_l, _mbsnbicoll, _mbsnbicoll_l

_mbsnbcpy, _mbsnbcpy_l

_mbsnbcpy_s, _mbsnbcpy_s_l

_mbsnbicmp, _mbsnbicmp_l

_mbsnbset, _mbsnbset_l

_mbsnbset_s, _mbsnbset_s_l

_mbsnextc, _mbsnextc_l, _strnextc, _wcsnextc

_mbsninc, _mbsninc_l, _strninc, _wcsninc

_mbsspnp, _mbsspnp_l, _strspnp, _wcsspnp

_memccpy

_memicmp, _memicmp_l

_mkdir, _wmkdir

_mkgmtime, _mkgmtime32, _mkgmtime64

_mktemp, _wmktemp

_mktemp_s, _wmktemp_s

_msize

_msize_dbg

_nextafter

_onexit, _onexit_m

_open, _wopen

_open_osfhandle

_outp, _outpw, _outpd

_pclose

_pipe

_popen, _wpopen

_printf_p, _printf_p_l, _wprintf_p, _wprintf_p_l

_putc_nolock, _putwc_nolock

_putch, _putwch

_putch_nolock, _putwch_nolock

_putchar_nolock, _putwchar_nolock

_putenv, _wputenv

_putenv_s, _wputenv_s

_putw

_query_new_handler

_query_new_mode

_read

_realloc_dbg

_resetstkoflw

_rmdir, _wrmdir

_rmtmp

_rotl, _rotl64, _rotr, _rotr64

_RPT, _RPTF, _RPTW, _RPTFW Macros

_RTC_GetErrDesc

_RTC_NumErrors

_RTC_SetErrorFunc

_RTC_SetErrorFuncW

_RTC_SetErrorType

_scalb

_scprintf, _scprintf_l, _scwprintf, _scwprintf_l

_scprintf_p, _scprintf_p_l, _scwprintf_p, _scwprintf_p_l

_searchenv, _wsearchenv

_searchenv_s, _wsearchenv_s

_set_abort_behavior

_set_amblksiz

_set_controlfp

_set_doserrno

_set_errno

_set_error_mode

_set_fileinfo

_set_fmode

_set_invalid_parameter_handler

_set_new_handler

_set_new_mode

_set_output_format

_set_printf_count_output

_set_purecall_handler, _set_purecall_handler_m

_set_sbh_threshold

_set_se_translator

_set_SSE2_enable

_setmaxstdio

_setmbcp

_setmode

_snprintf, _snprintf_l, _snwprintf, _snwprintf_l

_snprintf_s, _snprintf_s_l, _snwprintf_s, _snwprintf_s_l

_snscanf, _snscanf_l, _snwscanf, _snwscanf_l

_snscanf_s, _snscanf_s_l, _snwscanf_s, _snwscanf_s_l

_sopen, _wsopen

_sopen_s, _wsopen_s

_spawn, _wspawn Functions

_spawnl, _wspawnl

_spawnle, _wspawnle

_spawnlp, _wspawnlp

_spawnlpe, _wspawnlpe

_spawnv, _wspawnv

_spawnve, _wspawnve

_spawnvp, _wspawnvp

_spawnvpe, _wspawnvpe

_splitpath, _wsplitpath

_splitpath_s, _wsplitpath_s

_sprintf_p, _sprintf_p_l, _swprintf_p, _swprintf_p_l

_stat, _wstat Functions

_status87, _statusfp, _statusfp2

_strdate, _wstrdate

_strdate_s, _wstrdate_s

_strdup, _wcsdup, _mbsdup

_strdup_dbg, _wcsdup_dbg

_stricmp, _wcsicmp, _mbsicmp, _stricmp_l, _wcsicmp_l, _mbsicmp_l

_stricoll, _wcsicoll, _mbsicoll, _stricoll_l, _wcsicoll_l, _mbsicoll_l

_strlwr, _wcslwr, _mbslwr, _strlwr_l, _wcslwr_l, _mbslwr_l

_strlwr_s, _strlwr_s_l, _mbslwr_s, _mbslwr_s_l, _wcslwr_s, _wcslwr_s_l

_strncoll, _wcsncoll, _mbsncoll, _strncoll_l, _wcsncoll_l, _mbsncoll_l

_strnicmp, _wcsnicmp, _mbsnicmp, _strnicmp_l, _wcsnicmp_l, _mbsnicmp_l

_strnicoll, _wcsnicoll, _mbsnicoll, _strnicoll_l, _wcsnicoll_l, _mbsnicoll_l

_strnset, _strnset_l, _wcsnset, _wcsnset_l, _mbsnset, _mbsnset_l

_strnset_s, _strnset_s_l, _wcsnset_s, _wcsnset_s_l, _mbsnset_s, _mbsnset_s_l

_strrev, _wcsrev, _mbsrev, _mbsrev_l

_strset, _strset_l, _wcsset, _wcsset_l, _mbsset, _mbsset_l

_strset_s, _strset_s_l, _wcsset_s, _wcsset_s_l, _mbsset_s, _mbsset_s_l

_strtime, _wstrtime

_strtime_s, _wstrtime_s

_strtoi64, _wcstoi64, _strtoi64_l, _wcstoi64_l

_strtoui64, _wcstoui64, _strtoui64_l, _wcstoui64_l

_strupr, _strupr_l, _mbsupr, _mbsupr_l, _wcsupr_l, _wcsupr

_strupr_s, _strupr_s_l, _mbsupr_s, _mbsupr_s_l, _wcsupr_s, _wcsupr_s_l

_swab

_tell, _telli64

_tempnam, _wtempnam, tmpnam, _wtmpnam

_tempnam_dbg, _wtempnam_dbg

_tzset

_ultoa, _ultow

_ultoa_s, _ultow_s

_umask

_umask_s

_ungetc_nolock, _ungetwc_nolock

_ungetch, _ungetwch, _ungetch_nolock, _ungetwch_nolock

_unlink, _wunlink

_unlock_file

_utime, _utime32 _utime64, _wutime, _wutime32, _wutime64

_vcprintf, _vcprintf_l, _vcwprintf, _vcwprintf_l

_vcprintf_p, _vcprintf_p_l, _vcwprintf_p, _vcwprintf_p_l

_vcprintf_s, _vcprintf_s_l, _vcwprintf_s, _vcwprintf_s_l

_vfprintf_p, _vfprintf_p_l, _vfwprintf_p, _vfwprintf_p_l

_vprintf_p, _vprintf_p_l, _vwprintf_p, _vwprintf_p_l

_vscprintf, _vscprintf_l, _vscwprintf, _vscwprintf_l

_vscprintf_p, _vscprintf_p_l, _vscwprintf_p, _vscwprintf_p_l

_vsprintf_p, _vsprintf_p_l, _vswprintf_p, _vswprintf_p_l

_write

abort

abs, _abs64

acos, acosf

Alphabetical Function Reference

asctime, _wasctime

asctime_s, _wasctime_s

asin, asinf

assert (CRT)

atan, atanf, atan2, atan2f

atexit

atof, _atof_l, _wtof, _wtof_l

atoi, _atoi_l, _wtoi, _wtoi_l

atol, _atol_l, _wtol, _wtol_l

Bessel Functions

Bessel Functions: _j0, _j1, _jn

Bessel Functions: _y0, _y1, _yn

bsearch

bsearch_s

btowc

calloc

ceil, ceilf

clearerr

clearerr_s

clock

cos, cosf, cosh, coshf

ctime, _ctime32, _ctime64, _wctime, _wctime32, _wctime64

ctime_s, _ctime32_s, _ctime64_s, _wctime_s, _wctime32_s, _wctime64_s

difftime, _difftime32, _difftime64

div

exit, _exit

exp, expf

fabs, fabsf

fclose, _fcloseall

feof

ferror

fflush

fgetc, fgetwc

fgetpos

fgets, fgetws

Flag Directives

floor, floorf

fmod, fmodf

fopen, _wfopen

fopen_s, _wfopen_s

Format Specification Fields: printf and wprintf Functions

Format Specification Fields: scanf and wscanf Functions

fprintf, _fprintf_l, fwprintf, _fwprintf_l

fprintf_s, _fprintf_s_l, fwprintf_s, _fwprintf_s_l

fputc, fputwc

fputs, fputws

fread

free

freopen, _wfreopen

freopen_s, _wfreopen_s

frexp

fscanf, _fscanf_l, fwscanf, _fwscanf_l

fscanf_s, _fscanf_s_l, fwscanf_s, _fwscanf_s_l

fseek, _fseeki64

fsetpos

ftell, _ftelli64

fwrite

getc, getwc

getchar, getwchar

getenv, _wgetenv

getenv_s, _wgetenv_s

gets, _getws

gets_s, _getws_s

gmtime, _gmtime32, _gmtime64

is, isw Routines

isalnum, iswalnum, _isalnum_l, _iswalnum_l

isalpha, iswalpha, _isalpha_l, _iswalpha_l

iscntrl, iswcntrl, _iscntrl_l, _iswcntrl_l

__iscsym, __iswcsym, __iscsymf, __iswcsymf, _iscsym_l, _iswcsym_l, _iscsymf_l, _iswcsymf_l

isdigit, iswdigit, _isdigit_l, _iswdigit_l

isgraph, iswgraph, _isgraph_l, _iswgraph_l

isleadbyte, _isleadbyte_l

islower, iswlower, _islower_l, _iswlower_l

isprint, iswprint, _isprint_l, _iswprint_l

ispunct, iswpunct, _ispunct_l, _iswpunct_l

isspace, iswspace, _isspace_l, _iswspace_l

isupper, _isupper_l, iswupper, _iswupper_l

isxdigit, iswxdigit, _isxdigit_l, _iswxdigit_l

labs

ldexp

ldiv

localeconv

localtime, _localtime32, _localtime64

log, logf, log10, log10f

longjmp

malloc

mbrlen

mbrtowc

mbsinit

mbsrtowcs

mbsrtowcs_s

mbstowcs, _mbstowcs_l

mbstowcs_s, _mbstowcs_s_l

mbtowc, _mbtowc_l

memchr, wmemchr

memcmp, wmemcmp

memcpy, wmemcpy

memcpy_s, wmemcpy_s

memmove, wmemmove

memmove_s, wmemmove_s

memset, wmemset

mktime, _mktime32, _mktime64

modf, modff

offsetof

operator delete (CRT)

operator delete[] (CRT)

operator new (CRT)

operator new[] (CRT)

perror, _wperror

pow, powf

Precision Specification

printf Type Field Characters

printf Width Specification

printf, _printf_l, wprintf, _wprintf_l

printf_p Positional Parameters

printf_s, _printf_s_l, wprintf_s, _wprintf_s_l

putc, putwc

putchar, putwchar

puts, _putws

qsort

qsort_s

raise

rand

rand_s

realloc

remove, _wremove

rename, _wrename

rewind

scanf Type Field Characters

scanf Width Specification

scanf, _scanf_l, wscanf, _wscanf_l

scanf_s, _scanf_s_l, wscanf_s, _wscanf_s_l

set_terminate (CRT)

set_unexpected (CRT)

setbuf

setjmp

setlocale, _wsetlocale

setvbuf

signal

sin, sinf, sinh, sinhf

Size and Distance Specification

sprintf, _sprintf_l, swprintf, _swprintf_l, __swprintf_l

sprintf_s, _sprintf_s_l, swprintf_s, _swprintf_s_l

sqrt, sqrtf

srand

sscanf, _sscanf_l, swscanf, _swscanf_l

sscanf_s, _sscanf_s_l, swscanf_s, _swscanf_s_l

strcat, wcscat, _mbscat

strcat_s, wcscat_s, _mbscat_s

strchr, wcschr, _mbschr, _mbschr_l

strcmp, wcscmp, _mbscmp

strcoll Functions

strcoll, wcscoll, _mbscoll, _strcoll_l, _wcscoll_l, _mbscoll_l

strcpy, wcscpy, _mbscpy

strcpy_s, wcscpy_s, _mbscpy_s

strcspn, wcscspn, _mbscspn, _mbscspn_l

strerror, _strerror, _wcserror, __wcserror

strerror_s, _strerror_s, _wcserror_s, __wcserror_s

strftime, wcsftime, _strftime_l, _wcsftime_l

String to Numeric Value Functions

strlen, strlen_l, wcslen, wcslen_l, _mbslen, _mbslen_l, _mbstrlen, _mbstrlen_l

strncat, _strncat_l, wcsncat, wcsncat_l, _mbsncat _mbsncat_l

strncat_s, _strncat_s_l, wcsncat_s, _wcsncat_s_l, _mbsncat_s, _mbsncat_s_l

strncmp, wcsncmp, _mbsncmp, _mbsncmp_l

strncpy, _strncpy_l, wcsncpy, _wcsncpy_l, _mbsncpy, _mbsncpy_l

strncpy_s, _strncpy_s_l, wcsncpy_s, _wcsncpy_s_l, _mbsncpy_s, _mbsncpy_s_l

strnlen, strnlen_l, wcsnlen, wcsnlen_l, _mbsnlen, _mbsnlen_l, _mbstrnlen, _mbstrnlen_l

strpbrk, wcspbrk, _mbspbrk, _mbspbrk_l

strrchr, wcsrchr, _mbsrchr, _mbsrchr_l

strspn, wcsspn, _mbsspn, _mbsspn_l

strstr, wcsstr, _mbsstr, _mbsstr_l

strtod, _strtod_l, wcstod, _wcstod_l

strtok, _strtok_l, wcstok, _wcstok_l, _mbstok, _mbstok_l

strtok_s, _strtok_s_l, wcstok_s, _wcstok_s_l, _mbstok_s, _mbstok_s_l

strtol, wcstol, _strtol_l, _wcstol_l

strtoul, _strtoul_l, wcstoul, _wcstoul_l

strxfrm, wcsxfrm, _strxfrm_l, _wcsxfrm_l

system, _wsystem

tan, tanf, tanh, tanhf

terminate (CRT)

time, _time32, _time64

tmpfile

tmpfile_s

tmpnam_s, _wtmpnam_s

to Functions

tolower, _tolower, towlower, _tolower_l, _towlower_l

toupper, _toupper, towupper, _toupper_l, _towupper_l

towctrans

unexpected (CRT)

ungetc, ungetwc

va_arg, va_end, va_start

vfprintf, _vfprintf_l, vfwprintf, _vfwprintf_l

vfprintf_s, _vfprintf_s_l, vfwprintf_s, _vfwprintf_s_l

vprintf Functions

vprintf, _vprintf_l, vwprintf, _vwprintf_l

vprintf_s, _vprintf_s_l, vwprintf_s, _vwprintf_s_l

vsnprintf, _vsnprintf, _vsnprintf_l, _vsnwprintf, _vsnwprintf_l

vsnprintf_s, _vsnprintf_s, _vsnprintf_s_l, _vsnwprintf_s, _vsnwprintf_s_l

vsprintf, _vsprintf_l, vswprintf, _vswprintf_l, __vswprintf_l

vsprintf_s, _vsprintf_s_l, vswprintf_s, _vswprintf_s_l

wcrtomb

wcrtomb_s

wcsrtombs

wcsrtombs_s

wcstombs, _wcstombs_l

wcstombs_s, _wcstombs_s_l

wctob

wctomb, _wctomb_l

wctomb_s, _wctomb_s_l

wctrans

wctype

See Also

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