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Microsoft Extensions to C and C++

The following are Visual C++ extensions to the ANSI C and ANSI C++ standards:

Microsoft extends the C++ language with several additional keywords. For a complete list, see C++ Keywords in the C++ Language Reference. Keywords with two leading underscores are Microsoft extensions.

Under the standard (/Za), you need to make an out-of-class definition for data members. For example,

class CMyClass  {
   static const int max = 5;
   int m_array[max];
const int CMyClass::max;   // out of class definition

Under /Ze, the out-of-class definition is optional for static, const integral, and const enum data members. Only integrals and enums that are static and const can have initializers inside a class; the initializing expression must be a const expression.

To avoid errors when an out-of-class definition is provided (when the out-of-class definition is provided in a header file and the header file is included in multiple source files), you should use selectany. For example:

__declspec(selectany) const int CMyClass::max = 5;

The compiler supports the following two non-ANSI casts:

  • Use of non-ANSI casts to produce l-values:

    char *p;
    (( int * ) p )++;

    The preceding example could be rewritten to conform with the ANSI C standard as follows:

    p = ( char * )(( int * )p + 1 );
  • Non-ANSI casting of a function pointer to a data pointer:

    int ( * pfunc ) (); 
    int *pdata;
    pdata = ( int * ) pfunc;

    To perform the same cast while maintaining ANSI compatibility, you must cast the function pointer to an int before casting it to a data pointer:

    pdata = ( int * ) (int) pfunc;

The compiler supports use of a function declarator that specifies a variable number of arguments, followed by a function definition that provides a type instead:

void myfunc( int x, ... );
void myfunc( int x, char * c )
{ }

The C compiler supports single-line comments, which are introduced with two forward slash (//) characters:

// This is a single-line comment.

The C compiler supports the following scope-related features:

  • Redefinitions of extern items as static:

    extern int clip();
    static int clip()
  • Use of benign typedef redefinitions within the same scope:

    typedef int INT;
    typedef int INT;
  • Function declarators have file scope:

    void func1()
        extern int func2( double );
    int main( void )
        func2( 4 );    //  /Ze passes 4 as type double
    }                  //  /Za passes 4 as type int
  • Use of block-scope variables initialized with nonconstant expressions:

    int clip( int );
    int bar( int );
    int main( void )
        int array[2] = { clip( 2 ), bar( 4 ) };
    int clip( int x )
        return x;
    int bar( int x )
        return x;

The C compiler supports the following data declaration and definition features:

  • Mixed character and string constants in an initializer:

    char arr[5] = {'a', 'b', "cde"};
  • Bit fields with base types other than unsigned int or signed int.

  • Declarators without either a storage class or a type:

    int main( void )
        x = 1;
  • Unsized arrays as the last field in structures and unions:

    struct zero
        char *c;
        int zarray[];
  • Unnamed (anonymous) structures:

        int i;
        char *s;
  • Unnamed (anonymous) unions:

        int i;
        float fl;
  • Unnamed members:

    struct s
       unsigned int flag : 1;
       unsigned int : 31;

The compiler supports inline generation x86 Specific > of the atan, atan2, cos, exp, log, log10, sin, sqrt, and tan functions END x86 Specific when /Oi is specified. For C, ANSI conformance is lost when these intrinsics are used, because they do not set the errno variable.

This is an extension to C++. The following code will compile with /Ze:

typedef   int   T;

const T  acT = 9;      // A constant of type 'T'
const T* pcT = &acT;   // A pointer to a constant of type 'T'

void func2 ( const T*& rpcT )   // A reference to a pointer to a constant of type 'T'
   rpcT = pcT;

T*   pT;               // A pointer to a 'T'

void func ()
   func2 ( pT );      // Should be an error, but isn't detected
   *pT   = 7;         // Invalidly overwrites the constant 'acT'

Under /Ze, you have to include iso646.h if you want to use text forms of the following operators:

  • && (and)

  • &= (and_eq)

  • & (bitand)

  • | (bitor)

  • ~ (compl)

  • ! (not)

  • != (not_eq)

  • || (or)

  • |= (or_eq)

  • ^ (xor)

  • ^= (xor_eq)

The following example will output char const (*)[4] under /Za, but char const [4] under /Ze.

#include <stdio.h>
#include <typeinfo>

int main()
    printf_s("%s\n", typeid(&"abc").name());