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Array.BinarySearch Method (Array, Object)

Searches an entire one-dimensional sorted Array for a specific element, using the IComparable interface implemented by each element of the Array and by the specified object.

Namespace: System
Assembly: mscorlib (in mscorlib.dll)

public static int BinarySearch (
	Array array,
	Object value
)
public static int BinarySearch (
	Array array, 
	Object value
)
public static function BinarySearch (
	array : Array, 
	value : Object
) : int
Not applicable.

Parameters

array

The sorted one-dimensional Array to search.

value

The object to search for.

Return Value

The index of the specified value in the specified array, if value is found. If value is not found and value is less than one or more elements in array, a negative number which is the bitwise complement of the index of the first element that is larger than value. If value is not found and value is greater than any of the elements in array, a negative number which is the bitwise complement of (the index of the last element plus 1).

Exception typeCondition

ArgumentNullException

array is a null reference (Nothing in Visual Basic).

RankException

array is multidimensional.

ArgumentException

value is of a type that is not compatible with the elements of array.

InvalidOperationException

value does not implement the IComparable interface, and the search encounters an element that does not implement the IComparable interface.

array must be sorted before calling this method.

If the Array does not contain the specified value, the method returns a negative integer. You can apply the bitwise complement operator (~) to the negative result (in Visual Basic, Xor the negative result with -1) to produce an index. If this index is greater than or equal to the size of the array, there are no elements larger than value in the array. Otherwise, it is the index of the first element that is larger than value.

Either value or every element of array must implement the IComparable interface, which is used for comparisons. The elements of array must already be sorted in increasing value according to the sort order defined by the IComparable implementation; otherwise, the result might be incorrect.

NoteNote:

If value does not implement the IComparable interface, the elements of array are not tested for IComparable before the search begins. An exception is thrown if the search encounters an element that does not implement IComparable.

Duplicate elements are allowed. If the Array contains more than one element equal to value, the method returns the index of only one of the occurrences, and not necessarily the first one.

a null reference (Nothing in Visual Basic) can always be compared with any other reference type; therefore, comparisons with a null reference (Nothing in Visual Basic) do not generate an exception. When sorting, a null reference (Nothing in Visual Basic) is considered to be less than any other object.

NoteNote:

   For every element tested, value is passed to the appropriate IComparable implementation, even if value is a null reference (Nothing in Visual Basic). That is, the IComparable implementation determines how a given element compares to a null reference (Nothing in Visual Basic).

This method is an O(log n) operation, where n is the Length of array.

The following code example shows how to use BinarySearch to locate a specific object in an Array.

NoteNote:

The array is created with its elements in ascending sort order. The BinarySearch method requires the array to be sorted in ascending order.

using System;
public class SamplesArray  {

   public static void Main()  {

      // Creates and initializes a new Array.
      Array myIntArray = Array.CreateInstance( typeof(Int32), 5 );
      for ( int i = myIntArray.GetLowerBound(0); i <= myIntArray.GetUpperBound(0); i++ )
         myIntArray.SetValue( i*2, i );

      // Displays the values of the Array.
      Console.WriteLine( "The Int32 array contains the following:" );
      PrintValues( myIntArray );

      // Locates a specific object that does not exist in the Array.
      Object myObjectOdd = 3;
      FindMyObject( myIntArray, myObjectOdd );

      // Locates an object that exists in the Array.
      Object myObjectEven = 6;
      FindMyObject( myIntArray, myObjectEven );
   }

   public static void FindMyObject( Array myArr, Object myObject )  {
      int myIndex=Array.BinarySearch( myArr, myObject );
      if ( myIndex < 0 )
         Console.WriteLine( "The object to search for ({0}) is not found. The next larger object is at index {1}.", myObject, ~myIndex );
      else
         Console.WriteLine( "The object to search for ({0}) is at index {1}.", myObject, myIndex );
   }


   public static void PrintValues( Array myArr )  {
      System.Collections.IEnumerator myEnumerator = myArr.GetEnumerator();
      int i = 0;
      int cols = myArr.GetLength( myArr.Rank - 1 );
      while ( myEnumerator.MoveNext() )  {
         if ( i < cols )  {
            i++;
         } else  {
            Console.WriteLine();
            i = 1;
         }
         Console.Write( "\t{0}", myEnumerator.Current );
      }
      Console.WriteLine();
   }
}
/* 
This code produces the following output.

The Int32 array contains the following:
    0    2    4    6    8
The object to search for (3) is not found. The next larger object is at index 2.
The object to search for (6) is at index 3.
 */

import System.*;

public class SamplesArray
{
    public static void main(String[] args)
    {
        // Creates and initializes a new Array.
        Array myIntArray = Array.CreateInstance(Int32.class.ToType(), 5);
        for (int i = myIntArray.GetLowerBound(0); i <= myIntArray.
            GetUpperBound(0); i++) {
            myIntArray.SetValue((Int32)(i * 2), i);
        }
        // Displays the values of the Array.
        Console.WriteLine("The Int32 array contains the following:");
        PrintValues(myIntArray);
        // Locates a specific object that does not exist in the Array.
        Object myObjectOdd = (Int32)3;
        FindMyObject(myIntArray, myObjectOdd);
        // Locates an object that exists in the Array.
        Object myObjectEven = (Int32)6;
        FindMyObject(myIntArray, myObjectEven);
    } //main

    public static void FindMyObject(Array myArr, Object myObject)
    {
        int myIndex = Array.BinarySearch(myArr, myObject);
        if (myIndex < 0) {
            Console.WriteLine("The object to search for ({0}) is not found." 
                + " The next larger object is at index {1}.", (Object)myObject,
                (Int32)(~myIndex));
        }
        else {
            Console.WriteLine("The object to search for ({0}) is at index {1}.",
                myObject, (Int32)myIndex);
        }
    } //FindMyObject

    public static void PrintValues(Array myArr)
    {
        System.Collections.IEnumerator myEnumerator = myArr.GetEnumerator();
        int i = 0;
        int cols = myArr.GetLength(myArr.get_Rank() - 1);
        while (myEnumerator.MoveNext()) {
            if (i < cols) {
                i++;
            }
            else {
                Console.WriteLine();
                i = 1;
            }
            Console.Write("\t{0}", myEnumerator.get_Current());
        }
        Console.WriteLine();
    } //PrintValues
} //SamplesArray

/* 
 This code produces the following output.
 
 The Int32 array contains the following:
     0    2    4    6    8
 The object to search for (3) is not found. The next larger object is at index 2.
 The object to search for (6) is at index 3.
  */

import System
import System.Collections

// Creates and initializes a new Array.
var myIntArray : System.Array = System.Array.CreateInstance( Int32, 5);

for ( var i : int = myIntArray.GetLowerBound(0); i <= myIntArray.GetUpperBound(0); i++ )
    myIntArray.SetValue( Int32(i*2), i );

// Displays the values of the Array.
Console.WriteLine( "The Int32 array contains the following:" );
PrintValues( myIntArray );

// Locates a specific object that does not exist in the Array.
var myObjectOdd : Object  = 3;
FindMyObject( myIntArray, myObjectOdd );

// Locates an object that exists in the Array.
var myObjectEven : Object  = 6;
FindMyObject( myIntArray, myObjectEven );


function FindMyObject( myArr : System.Array, myObject : Object)  {

    var myIndex : int = System.Array.BinarySearch( myArr, myObject );

    if ( myIndex < 0 )
        Console.WriteLine( "The object to search for ({0}) is not found. " + 
                "The next larger object is at index {1}.", myObject, ~myIndex );
    else
        Console.WriteLine( "The object to search for ({0}) is at index {1}.", myObject, myIndex );
}

function PrintValues( myArr : System.Array )  {
    var arrEnum : IEnumerator = myArr.GetEnumerator();
    arrEnum.Reset();

    while (arrEnum.MoveNext()) {            

        Console.Write( "{0,-6}", arrEnum.Current.ToString());
    }

    Console.WriteLine();

}
 /* 
 This code produces the following output.
 
 The Int32 array contains the following:
     0    2    4    6    8
 The object to search for (3) is not found. The next larger object is at index 2.
 The object to search for (6) is at index 3.
  */

Windows 98, Windows Server 2000 SP4, Windows Millennium Edition, Windows Server 2003, Windows XP Media Center Edition, Windows XP Professional x64 Edition, Windows XP SP2, Windows XP Starter Edition

The Microsoft .NET Framework 3.0 is supported on Windows Vista, Microsoft Windows XP SP2, and Windows Server 2003 SP1.

.NET Framework

Supported in: 3.0, 2.0, 1.1, 1.0

.NET Compact Framework

Supported in: 2.0, 1.0

XNA Framework

Supported in: 1.0

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