Getting Started with Editor Extensions

You can use editor extensions to customize the appearance and behavior of the Visual Studio editor. For example, you can add new text coloring, margins, adornments, and other visual elements to a text view. You can also define your own type of content, and specify the appearance and behavior of the text views in which your content appears. You can add features such as outlining, brace matching, IntelliSense, and smart tags to any content type.

To get started writing editor extensions, use the editor project templates that are installed as part of the Visual Studio SDK. The Visual Studio SDK is a downloadable set of tools that make it easier to develop Visual Studio extensions, either by using VSPackages or by using the Managed Extensibility Framework (MEF).

Note Note

For more information about the Visual Studio SDK, see Extending Visual Studio Overview. To find out how to download the Visual Studio SDK, see Visual Studio Extensibility Developer Center on the MSDN Web site.

We recommend that you learn about the following concepts and technologies before you write your own editor extensions.

The Visual Studio editor user interface (UI) is implemented by using the Windows Presentation Framework (WPF). The WPF provides a rich visual experience and a consistent programming model that separates the visual aspects of the code from the business logic. You can use many WPF elements and features when you create editor extensions. For more information, see Windows Presentation Foundation.

The Visual Studio editor uses the Managed Extensibility Framework (MEF) to manage its components and extensions. The MEF also lets developers more easily create extensions for a host application like Visual Studio. In this framework, you define an extension according to a MEF contract and export it as a MEF component part. The host application manages the component parts by finding them, registering them, and making sure that they are applied to the correct context.

Note Note

For more information about the MEF in the editor, see Managed Extensibility Framework in the Editor.

Editor extension points are MEF component parts that you can customize and extend. In some cases you extend the extension point by implementing an interface and exporting it together with the correct metadata. In other cases you just declare an extension and export it as a particular type.

The following are some of the basic kinds of editor extensions:

  • Margins and scrollbars

  • Tags

  • Adornments

  • Options

  • IntelliSense

For more information about editor extension points, see Editor Extension Points.

In Visual Studio, you deploy editor extensions by adding a metadata file named source.extension.vsixmanifest to the solution, building the solution, and then adding a copy of the binary files and the manifest in a folder that is known to Visual Studio. The manifest file defines the basic facts about the extension (for example, name, author, version, and type of content). For more information about the VSIX manifest file and how to deploy extensions, see Visual Studio Extension Deployment.

When you install an extension on a computer, include the binaries and the manifest in a subfolder of folder that is known to Visual Studio.

Caution note Caution

You do not have to worry about the details of manifests and deployment locations if you use one of the editor extensibility templates that are included in Visual Studio. The templates contain everything that is required to register and deploy an extension.

You can insulate your working version of Visual Studio while you are developing an extension by deploying it in the following experimental folder (on Windows Vista and Windows 7):

%LOCALAPPDATA%\VisualStudio\10.0Exp\Extensions\Company\ExtensionID

where %LOCALAPPDATA% is the name of the logged-on user, Company is the name of the company that owns the extension, and ExtensionID is the ID of the extension.

When you deploy an extension to the experimental location, it runs in debug mode. A second instance of Visual Studio is started, and is named Microsoft Visual Studio - Experimental Instance.

Extensions to Visual Studio are listed in Extension Manager (on the Tools menu, click Extension Manager). If an extension to the experimental location so that you can test it before you deploy it more widely, it is listed in Extension Manager in the experimental instance, but is not listed in the development instance.

For more information about Extension Manager, see Installing and Managing Visual Studio Tools and Extensions.

You can use editor templates to create MEF extensions that customize classifiers, adornments, and margins. There are templates for both C# and Visual Basic projects. For more information, see Using Editor Templates to Create Extensions.

You can also use the VSIX Project template to create extensions. This template provides only the elements that are required to deploy any kind of extension, and include the source.extension.vsixmanifest file, the required assembly references, and a project file that includes the build tasks that allow you to deploy the extension. For more information, see Developing Visual Studio Extensions.

You can also create editor MEF components from a Visual Studio Package extension. See the following walkthroughs for details:

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