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Required Permissions for Database Features of Visual Studio

Before you can perform an action on a database in Visual Studio, you must log on with an account that has certain permissions on that database. The specific permissions that you need vary based on what action you want to perform. The following sections describe each action that you might want to perform and the specific permission that you need to perform it.

You must have the following permissions to create or deploy a database.

Actions

Required Permissions

Import database objects and settings

You must be able to connect to the source database.

  • If the source database is based on SQL Server 2005, you must also own or have the VIEW DEFINITION permission on each object.

  • If the source database is based on SQL Server 2008, you must also own or have the VIEW DEFINITION permission on each object. Your login must have the VIEW SERVER STATE permission (for database encryption keys).

Import server objects and settings

You must be able to connect to the "master" database on the specified server.

  • If the server is running SQL Server 2005, you must have the VIEW ANY DEFINITION permission on the server.

  • If the source database is based on SQL Server 2008, you must have the VIEW ANY DEFINITION permission on the server. Your login must have the VIEW SERVER STATE permission (for database encryption keys).

Create or update a database project

You do not require any database permissions to create or modify a database project.

Deploy new database or deploy with Always Re-create Database option set

You must either have the CREATE DATABASE permission or be a member of the dbcreator role on the target server.

When you create a database, Visual Studio connects to the model database and copies its contents. The initial login (for example, yourLogin) that you use to connect to the target database must have db_creator and CONNECT SQL permissions. This login must have a user mapping on the model database. If you have sysadmin permissions, you can create the mapping by issuing the following Transact-SQL statements:

USE [model]
CREATE USER yourUser FROM LOGIN yourLogin

The user (in this example, yourUser) must have CONNECT and VIEW DEFINITION permissions on the model database. If you have sysadmin permissions, you can grant these permissions by issuing the following Transact-SQL statements:

USE [model]
GRANT CONNECT to yourUser
GRANT VIEW DEFINITION TO yourUser

If you deploy a database that contains unnamed constraints and the CheckNewContraints option is enabled (it is enabled by default), you must have db_owner or sysadmin permissions or deployment will fail. This is only true for unnamed constraints. For more information about the CheckNewConstraints option, see An Overview of Database Project Settings.

Deploy updates to an existing database

You must be a valid database user. You must also be a member of the db_ddladmin role, own the schema, or own the objects that you want to create or modify on the target database. You need additional permissions to work with more advanced concepts such as logins or linked servers in your pre-deployment or post-deployment scripts.

Important noteImportant
If you deploy to the Master database, you must also have the VIEW ANY DEFINITION permission on the server to which you deploy.

Use an assembly with the EXTERNAL_ACCESS option in a database project

You must set the TRUSTWORTHY property for your database project. You must have the EXTERNAL ACCESS ASSEMBLY permission for your SQL Server login.

Deploy assemblies to a new or existing database

You must be a member of the sysadmin role on the target deployment server.

For more information, see the SQL Server 2005 Books Online or the SQL Server 2008 Books Online.

Database refactoring occurs only within the database project. You must have permissions to use the database project. You do not need permissions on a target database until you deploy your changes to it.

You must have the following permissions to perform unit tests on a database.

Actions

Required Permissions

Execute a test action

You must use the execution context database connection. For more information, see Overview of Connection Strings and Permissions.

Execute a pre-test or post-test action

You must use the privileged context database connection. This database connection has more permissions than the execution context connection does.

Run TestInitialize and TestCleanup scripts

You must use the privileged context database connection.

Deploy database changes before you run tests

You must use the privileged context database connection. For more information, see How to: Configure Database Unit Test Execution.

Generate data before you run tests

You must use the privileged context database connection. For more information, see How to: Configure Database Unit Test Execution.

You must have the INSERT and SELECT permissions on the objects in the target database to generate test data by using Data Generator. If you purge data before you generate data, you must also have DELETE permissions on the objects in the target database. To reset the IDENTITY column on a table, you must own the table, or you must be a member of the db_owner or db_ddladmin role.

You must have the following permissions to compare schemas or data.

Actions

Required Permissions

Compare the schemas of two databases

You must have the permissions to import objects and settings from the databases as described in Permissions to Create or Deploy a Database.

Compare the schemas of a database and a database project

You must have the permissions to import objects and settings from the database as described in Permissions to Create or Deploy a Database. You must also have the database project open in Visual Studio.

Write updates to a target database

You must have the permissions to deploy updates to the target database as described in Permissions to Create or Deploy a Database.

Compare the data of two databases

In addition to the permissions that you need to compare the schemas of two databases, you also need the SELECT permission on all the tables that you want to compare.

For more information, see these pages on the Microsoft Web site: SQL Server 2008 Books Online or SQL Server 2005 Books Online.

What you can do within the Transact-SQL editor is determined by your execution context to the target database.

The following table lists the permissions that you must have to deploy or debug SQL CLR projects:

Actions

Required Permissions

Deploy (initial or incremental) of a safe permission set assembly

  • db_DDLAdmin - this permission grants CREATE and ALTER permissions for the assemblies and objects types that you deploy

  • database-level VIEW DEFINITION - required in order to deploy

  • database-level CONNECT - grants the ability to connect to the database

Deploy an external_access permission set assembly

  • db_DDLAdmin - this permission grants CREATE and ALTER permissions for the assemblies and objects types that you deploy

  • database-level VIEW DEFINITION - required in order to deploy

  • database-level CONNECT - grants the ability to connect to the database

In addition, you must also have:

  • TRUSTWORTHY database option set to ON

  • The login that you use to deploy must have the External Access Assembly server permission.

Deploy an unsafe permission set assembly

  • db_DDLAdmin - this permission grants CREATE and ALTER permissions for the assemblies and objects types that you deploy

  • database-level VIEW DEFINITION - required in order to deploy

  • database-level CONNECT - grants the ability to connect to the database

In addition, you must also have:

  • TRUSTWORTHY database option set to ON

  • The login that you use to deploy must have the Unsafe Assembly server permission.

Remote debug a SQL CLR assembly

You must have the sysadmin fixed role permission.

Important noteImportant

In all cases, the assembly owner must be the user that you are using to deploy the assembly or the owner must be a role in which that user is a member. This requirement also applies to any assemblies referenced by the assembly that you deploy.

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