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Breaking Changes (CRT)

Breaking changes in the CRT.

Breaking changes

  • Many functions have been deprecated. See Deprecated CRT Functions.

  • The file descriptor value -2 is now used to indicate that stdout and stderr are not available for output, as for example in a Windows application that has no console window. The previous value used was -1. For more information, see _fileno.

  • The single-threaded CRT libraries, libc.lib and licd.lib, have been removed. Use the multi-threaded CRT libraries. The /ML compiler flag is no longer supported. Non-locking versions of some functions have been added in cases where the performance difference between the multithreaded code and the single-threaded code is potentially significant.

  • The overload of pow, double pow(int, int), was removed to better conform with the standard.

  • The %n format specifier is no longer supported by default in any of the printf family of functions because it is inherently insecure. The default behavior if %n is encountered is to invoke the invalid parameter handler. To enable %n support, use _set_printf_count_output (also see _get_printf_count_output).

  • sprintf now prints the negative sign of a signed zero.

  • swprintf has been changed to conform with the Standard; it now requires a size parameter. The form of swprintf without a size parameter has been deprecated.

  • _set_security_error_handler has been removed. Remove any calls to that function; the default handler is a much safer way of dealing with security errors.

  • time_t is now a 64-bit value (unless _USE_32BIT_TIME_T is defined).

  • The _spawn, _wspawn Functions now leave errno untouched on success, as specified by the C Standard.

  • RTC now uses wide characters by default.

  • Floating-point control word support functions have been deprecated for applications compiled with /CLR or /CLR:PURE. The affected functions are _clear87, _clearfp, _control87, _controlfp, _fpreset, _status87, _statusfp. You can disable the deprecation warning by defining _CRT_MANAGED_FP_NO_DEPRECATE, but the use of these functions in managed code is unpredictable and unsupported.

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