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toupper, _toupper, towupper, _toupper_l, _towupper_l

Convert character to uppercase.


int toupper(
   int c 
);
int _toupper(
   int c 
);
int towupper(
   wint_t c 
);
int _toupper_l(
   int c ,
   _locale_t locale
);
int _towupper_l(
   wint_t c ,
   _locale_t locale
);

Parameters

c

Character to convert.

locale

Locale to use.

Each of these routines converts a copy of c, if possible, and returns the result.

If c is a wide character for which iswlower is nonzero and there is a corresponding wide character for which iswupper is nonzero, towupper returns the corresponding wide character; otherwise, towupper returns c unchanged.

There is no return value reserved to indicate an error.

In order for toupper to give the expected results, __isascii and islower must both return nonzero.

Each of these routines converts a given lowercase letter to an uppercase letter if possible and appropriate. The case conversion of towupper is locale-specific. Only the characters relevant to the current locale are changed in case. The functions without the _l suffix use the currently set locale. The versions of these functions with the _l suffix take the locale as a parameter and use that instead of the currently set locale.

In order for toupper to give the expected results, __isascii and isupper must both return nonzero.

Data Conversion Routines

Generic-Text Routine Mappings
TCHAR.H routine _UNICODE & _MBCS not defined _MBCS defined _UNICODE defined

_totupper

toupper

_mbctoupper

towupper

_totupper_l

_toupper_l

_mbctoupper_l

_towupper_l

NoteNote

_toupper_l and _towupper_l have no locale dependence and are not meant to be called directly. They are provided for internal use by _totupper_l.

Routine Required header Compatibility

toupper

<ctype.h>

ANSI, Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows 98 Second Edition, Windows Millennium Edition, Windows NT 4.0, Windows 2000, Windows XP Home Edition, Windows XP Professional, Windows Server 2003

_toupper

<ctype.h>

Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows 98 Second Edition, Windows Millennium Edition, Windows NT 4.0, Windows 2000, Windows XP Home Edition, Windows XP Professional, Windows Server 2003

towupper

<ctype.h> or <wchar.h>

Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows 98 Second Edition, Windows Millennium Edition, Windows NT 4.0, Windows 2000, Windows XP Home Edition, Windows XP Professional, Windows Server 2003

For additional compatibility information, see Compatibility in the Introduction.

See the example in to Functions.

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