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vsprintf, _vsprintf_l, vswprintf, _vswprintf_l, __vswprintf_l

Write formatted output using a pointer to a list of arguments. These functions are deprecated because more secure versions are available; see vsprintf_s, _vsprintf_s_l, vswprintf_s, _vswprintf_s_l.


int vsprintf(
   char *buffer,
   const char *format,
      va_list argptr 
); 
int _vsprintf_l(
      char *buffer,
   const char *format,
   locale_t locale,
   va_list argptr 
); 
int vswprintf(
   wchar_t *buffer,
   size_t count,
   const wchar_t *format,
   va_list argptr 
);
int _vswprintf_l(
   wchar_t *buffer,
   size_t count,
   const wchar_t *format,
   locale_t locale,
   va_list argptr 
);
int __vswprintf_l(
   wchar_t *buffer,
   const wchar_t *format,
   locale_t locale,
   va_list argptr 
);
template <size_t size>
int vsprintf(
   char (&buffer)[size],
   const char *format,
   va_list argptr 
); // C++ only
template <size_t size>
int _vsprintf_l(
   char (&buffer)[size],
   const char *format,
   locale_t locale,
   va_list argptr 
); // C++ only
template <size_t size>
int vswprintf(
   wchar_t (&buffer)[size],
   size_t count,
   const wchar_t *format,
   va_list argptr 
); // C++ only
template <size_t size>
int _vswprintf_l(
   wchar_t (&buffer)[size],
   size_t count,
   const wchar_t *format,
   locale_t locale,
   va_list argptr 
); // C++ only

Parameters

buffer

Storage location for output.

count

Maximum number of characters to store, in the UNICODE version of this function.

format

Format specification.

argptr

Pointer to list of arguments.

locale

The locale to use.

vsprintf and vswprintf return the number of characters written, not including the terminating null character, or a negative value if an output error occurs. If buffer or format is a null pointer, these functions invoke the invalid parameter handler, as described in Parameter Validation. If execution is allowed to continue, these functions return -1 and set errno to EINVAL.

For information on these and other error codes, see _doserrno, errno, _sys_errlist, and _sys_nerr.

Each of these functions takes a pointer to an argument list, and then formats and writes the given data to the memory pointed to by buffer.

The versions of these functions with the _l suffix are identical except that they use the locale parameter passed in instead of the current thread locale.

Security noteSecurity Note

Using vsprintf, here is no way to limit the number of characters written, which means that code using this function is susceptible to buffer overruns. Use _vsnprintf instead, or call _vscprintf to determine how large a buffer is needed. Also, ensure that format is not a user-defined string. For more information, see Avoiding Buffer Overruns.

In Visual C++ 2005, vswprintf conforms to the ISO C Standard, which requires the second parameter, count, of type size_t. To force the old nonstandard behavior, define _CRT_NON_CONFORMING_SWPRINTFS. The old behavior may not be in a future version, so code should be changed to use the new conformant behavior.

In C++, these functions have template overloads that invoke the newer, secure counterparts of these functions. For more information, see Secure Template Overloads.

Generic-Text Routine Mappings
TCHAR.H routine _UNICODE & _MBCS not defined _MBCS defined _UNICODE defined

_vstprintf

vsprintf

vsprintf

vswprintf

_vstprintf_l

_vsprintf_l

_vsprintf_l

_vswprintf_l

Routine Required header Optional headers Compatibility

vsprintf, _vsprintf_l

<stdio.h> and <stdarg.h>

<varargs.h>*

ANSI, Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows 98 Second Edition, Windows Millennium Edition, Windows NT 4.0, Windows 2000, Windows XP Home Edition, Windows XP Professional, Windows Server 2003

vswprintf, _vswprintf_l

<stdio.h> or <wchar.h>, and <stdarg.h>

<varargs.h>*

ANSI, Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows 98 Second Edition, Windows Millennium Edition, Windows NT 4.0, Windows 2000, Windows XP Home Edition, Windows XP Professional, Windows Server 2003

* Required for UNIX V compatibility.

For additional compatibility information, see Compatibility in the Introduction.

// crt_vsprintf.c
// compile with: /W1
// This program uses vsprintf to write to a buffer.
// The size of the buffer is determined by _vscprintf.

#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdarg.h>

void test( char * format, ... )
{
    va_list args;
    int     len;
    char    *buffer;

    // retrieve the variable arguments
    va_start( args, format );
    
    len = _vscprintf( format, args ) // _vscprintf doesn't count
                                + 1; // terminating '\0'
    
    buffer = (char*)malloc( len * sizeof(char) );

    vsprintf( buffer, format, args ); // C4996
    // Note: vsprintf is deprecated; consider using vsprintf_s instead
    puts( buffer );

    free( buffer );
}

int main( void )
{
   test( "%d %c %d", 123, '<', 456 );
   test( "%s", "This is a string" );
}

Output

123 < 456
This is a string

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