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DynamicMethod Class

Defines and represents a dynamic method that can be compiled, executed, and discarded. Discarded methods are available for garbage collection.

Namespace:  System.Reflection.Emit
Assembly:  mscorlib (in mscorlib.dll)
[ComVisibleAttribute(true)]
public sealed class DynamicMethod : MethodInfo

The DynamicMethod type exposes the following members.

  NameDescription
Public methodDynamicMethod(String, Type, Type[])Initializes an anonymously hosted dynamic method, specifying the method name, return type, and parameter types.
Public methodDynamicMethod(String, Type, Type[], Boolean)Initializes an anonymously hosted dynamic method, specifying the method name, return type, parameter types, and whether just-in-time (JIT) visibility checks should be skipped for types and members accessed by the Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL) of the dynamic method.
Public methodDynamicMethod(String, Type, Type[], Module)Creates a dynamic method that is global to a module, specifying the method name, return type, parameter types, and module.
Public methodDynamicMethod(String, Type, Type[], Type)Creates a dynamic method, specifying the method name, return type, parameter types, and the type with which the dynamic method is logically associated.
Public methodDynamicMethod(String, Type, Type[], Module, Boolean)Creates a dynamic method that is global to a module, specifying the method name, return type, parameter types, module, and whether just-in-time (JIT) visibility checks should be skipped for types and members accessed by the Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL) of the dynamic method.
Public methodDynamicMethod(String, Type, Type[], Type, Boolean)Creates a dynamic method, specifying the method name, return type, parameter types, the type with which the dynamic method is logically associated, and whether just-in-time (JIT) visibility checks should be skipped for types and members accessed by the Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL) of the dynamic method.
Public methodDynamicMethod(String, MethodAttributes, CallingConventions, Type, Type[], Module, Boolean)Creates a dynamic method that is global to a module, specifying the method name, attributes, calling convention, return type, parameter types, module, and whether just-in-time (JIT) visibility checks should be skipped for types and members accessed by the Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL) of the dynamic method.
Public methodDynamicMethod(String, MethodAttributes, CallingConventions, Type, Type[], Type, Boolean)Creates a dynamic method, specifying the method name, attributes, calling convention, return type, parameter types, the type with which the dynamic method is logically associated, and whether just-in-time (JIT) visibility checks should be skipped for types and members accessed by the Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL) of the dynamic method.
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  NameDescription
Public propertyAttributesGets the attributes specified when the dynamic method was created. (Overrides MethodBase.Attributes.)
Public propertyCallingConventionGets the calling convention specified when the dynamic method was created. (Overrides MethodBase.CallingConvention.)
Public propertyContainsGenericParametersGets a value indicating whether the generic method contains unassigned generic type parameters. (Inherited from MethodBase.)
Public propertyDeclaringTypeGets the type that declares the method, which is always null for dynamic methods. (Overrides MemberInfo.DeclaringType.)
Public propertyInitLocalsGets or sets a value indicating whether the local variables in the method are zero-initialized.
Public propertyIsAbstractGets a value indicating whether the method is abstract. (Inherited from MethodBase.)
Public propertyIsAssemblyGets a value indicating whether the potential visibility of this method or constructor is described by MethodAttributes.Assembly; that is, the method or constructor is visible at most to other types in the same assembly, and is not visible to derived types outside the assembly. (Inherited from MethodBase.)
Public propertyIsConstructorGets a value indicating whether the method is a constructor. (Inherited from MethodBase.)
Public propertyIsFamilyGets a value indicating whether the visibility of this method or constructor is described by MethodAttributes.Family; that is, the method or constructor is visible only within its class and derived classes. (Inherited from MethodBase.)
Public propertyIsFamilyAndAssemblyGets a value indicating whether the visibility of this method or constructor is described by MethodAttributes.FamANDAssem; that is, the method or constructor can be called by derived classes, but only if they are in the same assembly. (Inherited from MethodBase.)
Public propertyIsFamilyOrAssemblyGets a value indicating whether the potential visibility of this method or constructor is described by MethodAttributes.FamORAssem; that is, the method or constructor can be called by derived classes wherever they are, and by classes in the same assembly. (Inherited from MethodBase.)
Public propertyIsFinalGets a value indicating whether this method is final. (Inherited from MethodBase.)
Public propertyIsGenericMethodGets a value indicating whether the method is generic. (Inherited from MethodBase.)
Public propertyIsGenericMethodDefinitionGets a value indicating whether the method is a generic method definition. (Inherited from MethodBase.)
Public propertyIsHideBySigGets a value indicating whether only a member of the same kind with exactly the same signature is hidden in the derived class. (Inherited from MethodBase.)
Public propertyIsPrivateGets a value indicating whether this member is private. (Inherited from MethodBase.)
Public propertyIsPublicGets a value indicating whether this is a public method. (Inherited from MethodBase.)
Public propertyIsSecurityCriticalGets a value that indicates whether the current dynamic method is security-critical or security-safe-critical, and therefore can perform critical operations. (Overrides MethodBase.IsSecurityCritical.)
Public propertyIsSecuritySafeCriticalGets a value that indicates whether the current dynamic method is security-safe-critical at the current trust level; that is, whether it can perform critical operations and can be accessed by transparent code. (Overrides MethodBase.IsSecuritySafeCritical.)
Public propertyIsSecurityTransparentGets a value that indicates whether the current dynamic method is transparent at the current trust level, and therefore cannot perform critical operations. (Overrides MethodBase.IsSecurityTransparent.)
Public propertyIsSpecialNameGets a value indicating whether this method has a special name. (Inherited from MethodBase.)
Public propertyIsStaticGets a value indicating whether the method is static. (Inherited from MethodBase.)
Public propertyIsVirtualGets a value indicating whether the method is virtual. (Inherited from MethodBase.)
Public propertyMemberTypeGets a MemberTypes value indicating that this member is a method. (Inherited from MethodInfo.)
Public propertyMetadataTokenGets a value that identifies a metadata element. (Inherited from MemberInfo.)
Public propertyMethodHandleNot supported for dynamic methods. (Overrides MethodBase.MethodHandle.)
Public propertyModuleGets the module with which the dynamic method is logically associated. (Overrides MemberInfo.Module.)
Public propertyNameGets the name of the dynamic method. (Overrides MemberInfo.Name.)
Public propertyReflectedTypeGets the class that was used in reflection to obtain the method. (Overrides MemberInfo.ReflectedType.)
Public propertyReturnParameterGets the return parameter of the dynamic method. (Overrides MethodInfo.ReturnParameter.)
Public propertyReturnTypeGets the type of return value for the dynamic method. (Overrides MethodInfo.ReturnType.)
Public propertyReturnTypeCustomAttributesGets the custom attributes of the return type for the dynamic method. (Overrides MethodInfo.ReturnTypeCustomAttributes.)
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  NameDescription
Public methodCreateDelegate(Type)Completes the dynamic method and creates a delegate that can be used to execute it.
Public methodCreateDelegate(Type, Object)Completes the dynamic method and creates a delegate that can be used to execute it, specifying the delegate type and an object the delegate is bound to.
Public methodDefineParameterDefines a parameter of the dynamic method.
Public methodEqualsReturns a value that indicates whether this instance is equal to a specified object. (Inherited from MethodInfo.)
Protected methodFinalizeAllows an object to try to free resources and perform other cleanup operations before it is reclaimed by garbage collection. (Inherited from Object.)
Public methodGetBaseDefinitionReturns the base implementation for the method. (Overrides MethodInfo.GetBaseDefinition().)
Public methodGetCustomAttributes(Boolean)Returns all the custom attributes defined for the method. (Overrides MemberInfo.GetCustomAttributes(Boolean).)
Public methodGetCustomAttributes(Type, Boolean)Returns the custom attributes of the specified type that have been applied to the method. (Overrides MemberInfo.GetCustomAttributes(Type, Boolean).)
Public methodGetCustomAttributesDataReturns a list of CustomAttributeData objects representing data about the attributes that have been applied to the target member. (Inherited from MemberInfo.)
Public methodGetDynamicILInfoReturns a DynamicILInfo object that can be used to generate a method body from metadata tokens, scopes, and Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL) streams.
Public methodGetGenericArgumentsReturns an array of Type objects that represent the type arguments of a generic method or the type parameters of a generic method definition. (Inherited from MethodInfo.)
Public methodGetGenericMethodDefinitionReturns a MethodInfo object that represents a generic method definition from which the current method can be constructed. (Inherited from MethodInfo.)
Public methodGetHashCodeReturns the hash code for this instance. (Inherited from MethodInfo.)
Public methodGetILGenerator()Returns a Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL) generator for the method with a default MSIL stream size of 64 bytes.
Public methodGetILGenerator(Int32)Returns a Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL) generator for the method with the specified MSIL stream size.
Public methodGetMethodBodyWhen overridden in a derived class, gets a MethodBody object that provides access to the MSIL stream, local variables, and exceptions for the current method. (Inherited from MethodBase.)
Public methodGetMethodImplementationFlagsReturns the implementation flags for the method. (Overrides MethodBase.GetMethodImplementationFlags().)
Public methodGetParametersReturns the parameters of the dynamic method. (Overrides MethodBase.GetParameters().)
Public methodGetTypeGets the Type of the current instance. (Inherited from Object.)
Public methodInvoke(Object, Object[])Invokes the method or constructor represented by the current instance, using the specified parameters. (Inherited from MethodBase.)
Public methodInvoke(Object, BindingFlags, Binder, Object[], CultureInfo)Invokes the dynamic method using the specified parameters, under the constraints of the specified binder, with the specified culture information. (Overrides MethodBase.Invoke(Object, BindingFlags, Binder, Object[], CultureInfo).)
Public methodIsDefinedIndicates whether the specified custom attribute type is defined. (Overrides MemberInfo.IsDefined(Type, Boolean).)
Public methodMakeGenericMethodSubstitutes the elements of an array of types for the type parameters of the current generic method definition, and returns a MethodInfo object representing the resulting constructed method. (Inherited from MethodInfo.)
Protected methodMemberwiseCloneCreates a shallow copy of the current Object. (Inherited from Object.)
Public methodToStringReturns the signature of the method, represented as a string. (Overrides Object.ToString().)
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  NameDescription
Explicit interface implemetationPrivate method_MemberInfo.GetIDsOfNamesMaps a set of names to a corresponding set of dispatch identifiers. (Inherited from MemberInfo.)
Explicit interface implemetationPrivate method_MemberInfo.GetTypeGets a Type object representing the MemberInfo class. (Inherited from MemberInfo.)
Explicit interface implemetationPrivate method_MemberInfo.GetTypeInfoRetrieves the type information for an object, which can then be used to get the type information for an interface. (Inherited from MemberInfo.)
Explicit interface implemetationPrivate method_MemberInfo.GetTypeInfoCountRetrieves the number of type information interfaces that an object provides (either 0 or 1). (Inherited from MemberInfo.)
Explicit interface implemetationPrivate method_MemberInfo.InvokeProvides access to properties and methods exposed by an object. (Inherited from MemberInfo.)
Explicit interface implemetationPrivate method_MethodBase.GetIDsOfNamesMaps a set of names to a corresponding set of dispatch identifiers. (Inherited from MethodBase.)
Explicit interface implemetationPrivate method_MethodBase.GetTypeFor a description of this member, see _MethodBase.GetType. (Inherited from MethodBase.)
Explicit interface implemetationPrivate method_MethodBase.GetTypeInfoRetrieves the type information for an object, which can then be used to get the type information for an interface. (Inherited from MethodBase.)
Explicit interface implemetationPrivate method_MethodBase.GetTypeInfoCountRetrieves the number of type information interfaces that an object provides (either 0 or 1). (Inherited from MethodBase.)
Explicit interface implemetationPrivate method_MethodBase.InvokeProvides access to properties and methods exposed by an object. (Inherited from MethodBase.)
Explicit interface implemetationPrivate property_MethodBase.IsAbstractFor a description of this member, see _MethodBase.IsAbstract. (Inherited from MethodBase.)
Explicit interface implemetationPrivate property_MethodBase.IsAssemblyFor a description of this member, see _MethodBase.IsAssembly. (Inherited from MethodBase.)
Explicit interface implemetationPrivate property_MethodBase.IsConstructorFor a description of this member, see _MethodBase.IsConstructor. (Inherited from MethodBase.)
Explicit interface implemetationPrivate property_MethodBase.IsFamilyFor a description of this member, see _MethodBase.IsFamily. (Inherited from MethodBase.)
Explicit interface implemetationPrivate property_MethodBase.IsFamilyAndAssemblyFor a description of this member, see _MethodBase.IsFamilyAndAssembly. (Inherited from MethodBase.)
Explicit interface implemetationPrivate property_MethodBase.IsFamilyOrAssemblyFor a description of this member, see _MethodBase.IsFamilyOrAssembly. (Inherited from MethodBase.)
Explicit interface implemetationPrivate property_MethodBase.IsFinalFor a description of this member, see _MethodBase.IsFinal. (Inherited from MethodBase.)
Explicit interface implemetationPrivate property_MethodBase.IsHideBySigFor a description of this member, see _MethodBase.IsHideBySig. (Inherited from MethodBase.)
Explicit interface implemetationPrivate property_MethodBase.IsPrivateFor a description of this member, see _MethodBase.IsPrivate. (Inherited from MethodBase.)
Explicit interface implemetationPrivate property_MethodBase.IsPublicFor a description of this member, see _MethodBase.IsPublic. (Inherited from MethodBase.)
Explicit interface implemetationPrivate property_MethodBase.IsSpecialNameFor a description of this member, see _MethodBase.IsSpecialName. (Inherited from MethodBase.)
Explicit interface implemetationPrivate property_MethodBase.IsStaticFor a description of this member, see _MethodBase.IsStatic. (Inherited from MethodBase.)
Explicit interface implemetationPrivate property_MethodBase.IsVirtualFor a description of this member, see _MethodBase.IsVirtual. (Inherited from MethodBase.)
Explicit interface implemetationPrivate method_MethodInfo.GetIDsOfNamesMaps a set of names to a corresponding set of dispatch identifiers. (Inherited from MethodInfo.)
Explicit interface implemetationPrivate method_MethodInfo.GetTypeProvides access to the GetType method from COM. (Inherited from MethodInfo.)
Explicit interface implemetationPrivate method_MethodInfo.GetTypeInfoRetrieves the type information for an object, which can be used to get the type information for an interface. (Inherited from MethodInfo.)
Explicit interface implemetationPrivate method_MethodInfo.GetTypeInfoCountRetrieves the number of type information interfaces that an object provides (either 0 or 1). (Inherited from MethodInfo.)
Explicit interface implemetationPrivate method_MethodInfo.InvokeProvides access to properties and methods exposed by an object. (Inherited from MethodInfo.)
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You can use the DynamicMethod class to generate and execute a method at run time, without having to generate a dynamic assembly and a dynamic type to contain the method. The executable code created by the just-in-time (JIT) compiler is reclaimed when the DynamicMethod object is reclaimed. Dynamic methods are the most efficient way to generate and execute small amounts of code.

A dynamic method can be anonymously hosted, or it can be logically associated with a module or with a type.

  • If the dynamic method is anonymously hosted, it is located in a system-provided assembly, and therefore is isolated from other code. By default, it does not have access to any non-public data. An anonymously hosted dynamic method can have restricted ability to skip the JIT compiler's visibility checks, if it has been granted ReflectionPermission with the ReflectionPermissionFlag.RestrictedMemberAccess flag. The trust level of the assembly whose non-public members are accessed by the dynamic method must be equal to, or a subset of, the trust level of the call stack that emitted the dynamic method. For more information about anonymously hosted dynamic methods, see Walkthrough: Emitting Code in Partial Trust Scenarios.

  • If the dynamic method is associated with a module that you specify, the dynamic method is effectively global to that module. It can access all types in the module and all internal (Friend in Visual Basic) members of the types. You can associate a dynamic method with any module, regardless of whether you created the module, provided that a demand for ReflectionPermission with the RestrictedMemberAccess flag can be satisfied by the call stack that includes your code. If the ReflectionPermissionFlag.MemberAccess flag is included in the grant, the dynamic method can skip the JIT compiler's visibility checks and access the private data of all types declared in the module or in any other module in any assembly.

    NoteNote

    When you specify the module with which a dynamic method is associated, that module must not be in the system-provided assembly that is used for anonymous hosting.

  • If the dynamic method is associated with a type that you specify, it has access to all members of the type, regardless of access level. In addition, JIT visibility checks can be skipped. This gives the dynamic method access to the private data of other types declared in the same module or in any other module in any assembly. You can associate a dynamic method with any type, but your code must be granted ReflectionPermission with both the RestrictedMemberAccess and MemberAccess flags.

The following table shows which types and members are accessible to an anonymously hosted dynamic method, with and without JIT visibility checks, depending on whether ReflectionPermission with the RestrictedMemberAccess flag is granted.

 

Without RestrictedMemberAccess

With RestrictedMemberAccess

Without skipping JIT visibility checks

Public members of public types in any assembly.

Public members of public types in any assembly.

Skipping JIT visibility checks, with restrictions

Public members of public types in any assembly.

All members of all types, only in assemblies whose trust levels are equal to or less than the trust level of the assembly that emitted the dynamic method.

NoteNote

Prior to the .NET Framework version 2.0 Service Pack 1, emitting code required ReflectionPermission with the ReflectionPermissionFlag.ReflectionEmit flag. This permission is included by default in the FullTrust and LocalIntranet named permission sets, but not in the Internet permission set. Therefore, in earlier versions of the .NET Framework a library can be used with Internet permissions only if it has the SecurityCriticalAttribute attribute and also executes an Assert for ReflectionEmit. Such libraries require careful security review because coding errors could result in security holes. The .NET Framework 2.0 SP1 allows code to be emitted in partial trust scenarios without issuing any security demands, because generating code is not inherently a privileged operation. That is, the generated code has no more permissions than the assembly that emits it. This allows libraries that emit code to be security transparent and removes the need to assert ReflectionEmit, which simplifies the task of writing a secure library. To use this feature, your application should target the .NET Framework version 3.5 or later.

The following table shows which types and members are accessible to a dynamic method that is associated with a module or with a type in a module.

 

Associated with module

Associated with type

Without skipping JIT visibility checks

Public and internal members of public, internal, and private types in the module.

Public members of public types in any assembly.

All members of the associated type. Public and internal members of all the other types in the module.

Public members of public types in any assembly.

Skipping JIT visibility checks

All members of all types in any assembly.

All members of all types in any assembly.

A dynamic method that is associated with a module has the permissions of that module. A dynamic method that is associated with a type has the permissions of the module containing that type.

Dynamic methods and their parameters do not have to be named, but you can specify names to assist in debugging. Custom attributes are not supported on dynamic methods or their parameters.

Although dynamic methods are static methods (Shared methods in Visual Basic), the relaxed rules for delegate binding introduced in the .NET Framework 2.0 allow a dynamic method to be bound to an object, so that it acts like an instance method when called using that delegate instance. An example that demonstrates this is provided for the CreateDelegate(Type, Object) method overload.

NoteNote

In the .NET Framework 2.0, dynamic methods do not support symbol information, that is, local variable names and line-number mapping. This limitation might be removed in a future version. You can use AssemblyBuilder during development to simplify debugging the generated Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL), and then switch to dynamic methods during final deployment, because the ILGenerator calls are the same in both cases.

Verification

The following list summarizes the conditions under which dynamic methods can contain unverifiable code. (For example, a dynamic method is unverifiable if its InitLocals property is set to false.)

  • A dynamic method that is associated with a security-critical assembly is also security-critical, and can skip verification. For example, an assembly without security attributes that is run as a desktop application is treated as security-critical by the runtime. If you associate a dynamic method with the assembly, the dynamic method can contain unverifiable code.

  • If a dynamic method that contains unverifiable code is associated with an assembly that has level 1 transparency, the just-in-time (JIT) compiler injects a security demand. The demand succeeds only if the dynamic method is executed by fully trusted code. See Security-Transparent Code, Level 1.

  • If a dynamic method that contains unverifiable code is associated with an assembly that has level 2 transparency (such as mscorlib.dll), it throws an exception (injected by the JIT compiler) instead of making a security demand. See Security-Transparent Code, Level 2.

  • An anonymously hosted dynamic method that contains unverifiable code always throws an exception. It can never skip verification, even if it is created and executed by fully trusted code.

The exception that is thrown for unverifiable code varies depending on the way the dynamic method is invoked. If you invoke a dynamic method by using a delegate returned from the CreateDelegate method, a VerificationException is thrown. If you invoke the dynamic method by using the Invoke method, a TargetInvocationException is thrown with an inner VerificationException.

The following code example creates a dynamic method that takes two parameters. The example emits a simple function body that prints the first parameter to the console, and the example uses the second parameter as the return value of the method. The example completes the method by creating a delegate, invokes the delegate with different parameters, and finally invokes the dynamic method using the Invoke method.


using System;
using System.Reflection;
using System.Reflection.Emit;
using System.Globalization;

public class Test
{
    // Declare a delegate type that can be used to execute the completed
    // dynamic method. 
    private delegate int HelloDelegate(string msg, int ret);

    public static void Main()
    {
        // Create an array that specifies the types of the parameters
        // of the dynamic method. This dynamic method has a String
        // parameter and an Integer parameter.
        Type[] helloArgs = {typeof(string), typeof(int)};

        // Create a dynamic method with the name "Hello", a return type
        // of Integer, and two parameters whose types are specified by
        // the array helloArgs. Create the method in the module that
        // defines the String class.
        DynamicMethod hello = new DynamicMethod("Hello", 
            typeof(int), 
            helloArgs, 
            typeof(string).Module);

        // Create an array that specifies the parameter types of the
        // overload of Console.WriteLine to be used in Hello.
        Type[] writeStringArgs = {typeof(string)};
        // Get the overload of Console.WriteLine that has one
        // String parameter.
        MethodInfo writeString = typeof(Console).GetMethod("WriteLine", 
            writeStringArgs);

        // Get an ILGenerator and emit a body for the dynamic method,
        // using a stream size larger than the IL that will be
        // emitted.
        ILGenerator il = hello.GetILGenerator(256);
        // Load the first argument, which is a string, onto the stack.
        il.Emit(OpCodes.Ldarg_0);
        // Call the overload of Console.WriteLine that prints a string.
        il.EmitCall(OpCodes.Call, writeString, null);
        // The Hello method returns the value of the second argument;
        // to do this, load the onto the stack and return.
        il.Emit(OpCodes.Ldarg_1);
        il.Emit(OpCodes.Ret);

        // Add parameter information to the dynamic method. (This is not
        // necessary, but can be useful for debugging.) For each parameter,
        // identified by position, supply the parameter attributes and a 
        // parameter name.
        hello.DefineParameter(1, ParameterAttributes.In, "message");
        hello.DefineParameter(2, ParameterAttributes.In, "valueToReturn");

        // Create a delegate that represents the dynamic method. This
        // action completes the method. Any further attempts to
        // change the method are ignored.
        HelloDelegate hi = 
            (HelloDelegate) hello.CreateDelegate(typeof(HelloDelegate));

        // Use the delegate to execute the dynamic method.
        Console.WriteLine("\r\nUse the delegate to execute the dynamic method:");
        int retval = hi("\r\nHello, World!", 42);
        Console.WriteLine("Invoking delegate hi(\"Hello, World!\", 42) returned: " + retval);

        // Execute it again, with different arguments.
        retval = hi("\r\nHi, Mom!", 5280);
        Console.WriteLine("Invoking delegate hi(\"Hi, Mom!\", 5280) returned: " + retval);

        Console.WriteLine("\r\nUse the Invoke method to execute the dynamic method:");
        // Create an array of arguments to use with the Invoke method.
        object[] invokeArgs = {"\r\nHello, World!", 42};
        // Invoke the dynamic method using the arguments. This is much
        // slower than using the delegate, because you must create an
        // array to contain the arguments, and value-type arguments
        // must be boxed.
        object objRet = hello.Invoke(null, BindingFlags.ExactBinding, null, invokeArgs, new CultureInfo("en-us"));
        Console.WriteLine("hello.Invoke returned: " + objRet);

        Console.WriteLine("\r\n ----- Display information about the dynamic method -----");
        // Display MethodAttributes for the dynamic method, set when 
        // the dynamic method was created.
        Console.WriteLine("\r\nMethod Attributes: {0}", hello.Attributes);

        // Display the calling convention of the dynamic method, set when the 
        // dynamic method was created.
        Console.WriteLine("\r\nCalling convention: {0}", hello.CallingConvention);

        // Display the declaring type, which is always null for dynamic
        // methods.
        if (hello.DeclaringType == null)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("\r\nDeclaringType is always null for dynamic methods.");
        }
        else
        {
            Console.WriteLine("DeclaringType: {0}", hello.DeclaringType);
        }

        // Display the default value for InitLocals.
        if (hello.InitLocals)
        {
            Console.Write("\r\nThis method contains verifiable code.");
        }
        else
        {
            Console.Write("\r\nThis method contains unverifiable code.");
        }
        Console.WriteLine(" (InitLocals = {0})", hello.InitLocals);

        // Display the module specified when the dynamic method was created.
        Console.WriteLine("\r\nModule: {0}", hello.Module);

        // Display the name specified when the dynamic method was created.
        // Note that the name can be blank.
        Console.WriteLine("\r\nName: {0}", hello.Name);

        // For dynamic methods, the reflected type is always null.
        if (hello.ReflectedType == null)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("\r\nReflectedType is null.");
        }
        else
        {
            Console.WriteLine("\r\nReflectedType: {0}", hello.ReflectedType);
        }

        if (hello.ReturnParameter == null)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("\r\nMethod has no return parameter.");
        }
        else
        {
            Console.WriteLine("\r\nReturn parameter: {0}", hello.ReturnParameter);
        }

        // If the method has no return type, ReturnType is System.Void.
        Console.WriteLine("\r\nReturn type: {0}", hello.ReturnType);

        // ReturnTypeCustomAttributes returns an ICustomeAttributeProvider
        // that can be used to enumerate the custom attributes of the
        // return value. At present, there is no way to set such custom
        // attributes, so the list is empty.
        if (hello.ReturnType == typeof(void))
        {
            Console.WriteLine("The method has no return type.");
        }
        else
        {
            ICustomAttributeProvider caProvider = hello.ReturnTypeCustomAttributes;
            object[] returnAttributes = caProvider.GetCustomAttributes(true);
            if (returnAttributes.Length == 0)
            {
                Console.WriteLine("\r\nThe return type has no custom attributes.");
            }
            else
            {
                Console.WriteLine("\r\nThe return type has the following custom attributes:");
                foreach( object attr in returnAttributes )
                {
                    Console.WriteLine("\t{0}", attr.ToString());
                }
            }
        }

        Console.WriteLine("\r\nToString: {0}", hello.ToString());

        // Display parameter information.
        ParameterInfo[] parameters = hello.GetParameters();
        Console.WriteLine("\r\nParameters: name, type, ParameterAttributes");
        foreach( ParameterInfo p in parameters )
        {
            Console.WriteLine("\t{0}, {1}, {2}", 
                p.Name, p.ParameterType, p.Attributes);
        }
    }
}

/* This code example produces the following output:

Use the delegate to execute the dynamic method:

Hello, World!
Invoking delegate hi("Hello, World!", 42) returned: 42

Hi, Mom!
Invoking delegate hi("Hi, Mom!", 5280) returned: 5280

Use the Invoke method to execute the dynamic method:

Hello, World!
hello.Invoke returned: 42

 ----- Display information about the dynamic method -----

Method Attributes: PrivateScope, Public, Static

Calling convention: Standard

DeclaringType is always null for dynamic methods.

This method contains verifiable code. (InitLocals = True)

Module: CommonLanguageRuntimeLibrary

Name: Hello

ReflectedType is null.

Method has no return parameter.

Return type: System.Int32

The return type has no custom attributes.

ToString: Int32 Hello(System.String, Int32)

Parameters: name, type, ParameterAttributes
        message, System.String, In
        valueToReturn, System.Int32, In
 */


.NET Framework

Supported in: 4, 3.5, 3.0, 2.0

.NET Framework Client Profile

Supported in: 4, 3.5 SP1

Windows 7, Windows Vista SP1 or later, Windows XP SP3, Windows XP SP2 x64 Edition, Windows Server 2008 (Server Core not supported), Windows Server 2008 R2 (Server Core supported with SP1 or later), Windows Server 2003 SP2

The .NET Framework does not support all versions of every platform. For a list of the supported versions, see .NET Framework System Requirements.
Any public static (Shared in Visual Basic) members of this type are thread safe. Any instance members are not guaranteed to be thread safe.
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