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Decimal Structure

April 12, 2014

Represents a decimal number.

Namespace:  System
Assembly:  mscorlib (in mscorlib.dll)
public struct Decimal : IComparable, IComparable<decimal>, 
	IConvertible, IEquatable<decimal>, IFormattable

The Decimal type exposes the following members.

  NameDescription
Public methodDecimal(Double)Initializes a new instance of Decimal to the value of the specified double-precision floating-point number.
Public methodDecimal(Int32)Initializes a new instance of Decimal to the value of the specified 32-bit signed integer.
Public methodDecimal(Int32[])Initializes a new instance of Decimal to a decimal value represented in binary and contained in a specified array.
Public methodDecimal(Int64)Initializes a new instance of Decimal to the value of the specified 64-bit signed integer.
Public methodDecimal(Single)Initializes a new instance of Decimal to the value of the specified single-precision floating-point number.
Public methodDecimal(UInt32)Initializes a new instance of Decimal to the value of the specified 32-bit unsigned integer.
Public methodDecimal(UInt64)Initializes a new instance of Decimal to the value of the specified 64-bit unsigned integer.
Public methodDecimal(Int32, Int32, Int32, Boolean, Byte)Initializes a new instance of Decimal from parameters specifying the instance's constituent parts.
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  NameDescription
Public methodStatic memberAddAdds two specified Decimal values.
Public methodStatic memberCeilingReturns the smallest integral value greater than or equal to the specified decimal number.
Public methodStatic memberCompareCompares two specified Decimal values and returns an integer that indicates whether the first value is greater than, less than, or equal to the second value.
Public methodCompareTo(Decimal)Compares this instance to a specified Decimal object and returns an integer that indicates whether the value of this instance is greater than, less than, or equal to the value of the specified Decimal.
Public methodCompareTo(Object)Compares this instance to a specified Object and returns an integer that indicates whether the value of this instance is greater than, less than, or equal to the value of the specified Object.
Public methodStatic memberDivideDivides two specified Decimal values.
Public methodEquals(Decimal)Returns a value indicating whether this instance and a specified Decimal object represent the same value.
Public methodEquals(Object)Returns a value indicating whether this instance and a specified Object represent the same type and value. (Overrides ValueType.Equals(Object).)
Public methodStatic memberEquals(Decimal, Decimal)Returns a value indicating whether two specified instances of Decimal represent the same value.
Protected methodFinalizeAllows an object to try to free resources and perform other cleanup operations before the Object is reclaimed by garbage collection. (Inherited from Object.)
Public methodStatic memberFloorRounds a specified Decimal number to the closest integer toward negative infinity.
Public methodStatic memberGetBitsConverts the value of a specified instance of Decimal to its equivalent binary representation.
Public methodGetHashCodeReturns the hash code for this instance. (Overrides ValueType.GetHashCode().)
Public methodGetTypeGets the Type of the current instance. (Inherited from Object.)
Public methodGetTypeCodeReturns the TypeCode for value type Decimal.
Protected methodMemberwiseCloneCreates a shallow copy of the current Object. (Inherited from Object.)
Public methodStatic memberMultiplyMultiplies two specified Decimal values.
Public methodStatic memberNegateReturns the result of multiplying the specified Decimal value by negative one.
Public methodStatic memberParse(String)Converts the string representation of a number to its Decimal equivalent.
Public methodStatic memberParse(String, NumberStyles)Converts the string representation of a number in a specified style to its Decimal equivalent.
Public methodStatic memberParse(String, IFormatProvider)Converts the string representation of a number to its Decimal equivalent using the specified culture-specific format information.
Public methodStatic memberParse(String, NumberStyles, IFormatProvider)Converts the string representation of a number to its Decimal equivalent using the specified style and culture-specific format.
Public methodStatic memberRemainderComputes the remainder after dividing two Decimal values.
Public methodStatic memberRoundRounds a Decimal value to a specified number of decimal places.
Public methodStatic memberSubtractSubtracts one specified Decimal value from another.
Public methodStatic memberToByteConverts the value of the specified Decimal to the equivalent 8-bit unsigned integer.
Public methodStatic memberToDoubleConverts the value of the specified Decimal to the equivalent double-precision floating-point number.
Public methodStatic memberToInt16Converts the value of the specified Decimal to the equivalent 16-bit signed integer.
Public methodStatic memberToInt32Converts the value of the specified Decimal to the equivalent 32-bit signed integer.
Public methodStatic memberToInt64Converts the value of the specified Decimal to the equivalent 64-bit signed integer.
Public methodStatic memberToSByteConverts the value of the specified Decimal to the equivalent 8-bit signed integer.
Public methodStatic memberToSingleConverts the value of the specified Decimal to the equivalent single-precision floating-point number.
Public methodToString()Converts the numeric value of this instance to its equivalent string representation. (Overrides ValueType.ToString().)
Public methodToString(IFormatProvider)Converts the numeric value of this instance to its equivalent string representation using the specified culture-specific format information.
Public methodToString(String)Converts the numeric value of this instance to its equivalent string representation, using the specified format.
Public methodToString(String, IFormatProvider)Converts the numeric value of this instance to its equivalent string representation using the specified format and culture-specific format information.
Public methodStatic memberToUInt16Converts the value of the specified Decimal to the equivalent 16-bit unsigned integer.
Public methodStatic memberToUInt32Converts the value of the specified Decimal to the equivalent 32-bit unsigned integer.
Public methodStatic memberToUInt64Converts the value of the specified Decimal to the equivalent 64-bit unsigned integer.
Public methodStatic memberTruncateReturns the integral digits of the specified Decimal; any fractional digits are discarded.
Public methodStatic memberTryParse(String, Decimal)Converts the string representation of a number to its Decimal equivalent. A return value indicates whether the conversion succeeded or failed.
Public methodStatic memberTryParse(String, NumberStyles, IFormatProvider, Decimal)Converts the string representation of a number to its Decimal equivalent using the specified style and culture-specific format. A return value indicates whether the conversion succeeded or failed.
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  NameDescription
Public operatorStatic memberAdditionAdds two specified Decimal values.
Public operatorStatic memberDecrementDecrements the Decimal operand by one.
Public operatorStatic memberDivisionDivides two specified Decimal values.
Public operatorStatic memberEqualityReturns a value indicating whether two instances of Decimal are equal.
Public operatorStatic memberExplicit(Decimal to Single)Converts a Decimal to a single-precision floating-point number.
Public operatorStatic memberExplicit(Decimal to SByte)Converts a Decimal to an 8-bit signed integer.
Public operatorStatic memberExplicit(Decimal to Int64)Converts a Decimal to a 64-bit signed integer.
Public operatorStatic memberExplicit(Decimal to UInt64)Converts a Decimal to a 64-bit unsigned integer.
Public operatorStatic memberExplicit(Decimal to UInt32)Converts a Decimal to a 32-bit unsigned integer.
Public operatorStatic memberExplicit(Decimal to UInt16)Converts a Decimal to a 16-bit unsigned integer.
Public operatorStatic memberExplicit(Decimal to Char)Converts a Decimal to a Unicode character.
Public operatorStatic memberExplicit(Decimal to Byte)Converts a Decimal to an 8-bit unsigned integer.
Public operatorStatic memberExplicit(Decimal to Double)Converts a Decimal to a double-precision floating-point number.
Public operatorStatic memberExplicit(Decimal to Int32)Converts a Decimal to a 32-bit signed integer.
Public operatorStatic memberExplicit(Decimal to Int16)Converts a Decimal to a 16-bit signed integer.
Public operatorStatic memberExplicit(Double to Decimal)Converts a double-precision floating-point number to a Decimal.
Public operatorStatic memberExplicit(Single to Decimal)Converts a single-precision floating-point number to a Decimal.
Public operatorStatic memberGreaterThanReturns a value indicating whether a specified Decimal is greater than another specified Decimal.
Public operatorStatic memberGreaterThanOrEqualReturns a value indicating whether a specified Decimal is greater than or equal to another specified Decimal.
Public operatorStatic memberImplicit(Byte to Decimal)Converts an 8-bit unsigned integer to a Decimal.
Public operatorStatic memberImplicit(Char to Decimal)Converts a Unicode character to a Decimal.
Public operatorStatic memberImplicit(Int16 to Decimal)Converts a 16-bit signed integer to a Decimal.
Public operatorStatic memberImplicit(Int32 to Decimal)Converts a 32-bit signed integer to a Decimal.
Public operatorStatic memberImplicit(Int64 to Decimal)Converts a 64-bit signed integer to a Decimal.
Public operatorStatic memberImplicit(SByte to Decimal)Converts an 8-bit signed integer to a Decimal.
Public operatorStatic memberImplicit(UInt16 to Decimal)Converts a 16-bit unsigned integer to a Decimal.
Public operatorStatic memberImplicit(UInt32 to Decimal)Converts a 32-bit unsigned integer to a Decimal.
Public operatorStatic memberImplicit(UInt64 to Decimal)Converts a 64-bit unsigned integer to a Decimal.
Public operatorStatic memberIncrementIncrements the Decimal operand by 1.
Public operatorStatic memberInequalityReturns a value indicating whether two instances of Decimal are not equal.
Public operatorStatic memberLessThanReturns a value indicating whether a specified Decimal is less than another specified Decimal.
Public operatorStatic memberLessThanOrEqualReturns a value indicating whether a specified Decimal is less than or equal to another specified Decimal.
Public operatorStatic memberModulusReturns the remainder resulting from dividing two specified Decimal values.
Public operatorStatic memberMultiplyMultiplies two specified Decimal values.
Public operatorStatic memberSubtractionSubtracts two specified Decimal values.
Public operatorStatic memberUnaryNegationNegates the value of the specified Decimal operand.
Public operatorStatic memberUnaryPlusReturns the value of the Decimal operand (the sign of the operand is unchanged).
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  NameDescription
Public fieldStatic memberMaxValueRepresents the largest possible value of Decimal. This field is constant and read-only.
Public fieldStatic memberMinusOneRepresents the number negative one (-1).
Public fieldStatic memberMinValueRepresents the smallest possible value of Decimal. This field is constant and read-only.
Public fieldStatic memberOneRepresents the number one (1).
Public fieldStatic memberZeroRepresents the number zero (0).
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  NameDescription
Explicit interface implemetationPrivate methodIConvertible.ToBooleanInfrastructure. For a description of this member, see IConvertible.ToBoolean.
Explicit interface implemetationPrivate methodIConvertible.ToByteInfrastructure. For a description of this member, see IConvertible.ToByte.
Explicit interface implemetationPrivate methodIConvertible.ToCharInfrastructure. This conversion is not supported. Attempting to use this method throws an InvalidCastException.
Explicit interface implemetationPrivate methodIConvertible.ToDateTimeInfrastructure. This conversion is not supported. Attempting to use this method throws an InvalidCastException.
Explicit interface implemetationPrivate methodIConvertible.ToDecimalInfrastructure. For a description of this member, see IConvertible.ToDecimal.
Explicit interface implemetationPrivate methodIConvertible.ToDoubleInfrastructure. For a description of this member, see IConvertible.ToDouble.
Explicit interface implemetationPrivate methodIConvertible.ToInt16Infrastructure. For a description of this member, see IConvertible.ToInt16.
Explicit interface implemetationPrivate methodIConvertible.ToInt32Infrastructure. For a description of this member, see IConvertible.ToInt32.
Explicit interface implemetationPrivate methodIConvertible.ToInt64Infrastructure. For a description of this member, see IConvertible.ToInt64.
Explicit interface implemetationPrivate methodIConvertible.ToSByteInfrastructure. For a description of this member, see IConvertible.ToSByte.
Explicit interface implemetationPrivate methodIConvertible.ToSingleInfrastructure. For a description of this member, see IConvertible.ToSingle.
Explicit interface implemetationPrivate methodIConvertible.ToTypeInfrastructure. For a description of this member, see IConvertible.ToType.
Explicit interface implemetationPrivate methodIConvertible.ToUInt16Infrastructure. For a description of this member, see IConvertible.ToUInt16.
Explicit interface implemetationPrivate methodIConvertible.ToUInt32Infrastructure. For a description of this member, see IConvertible.ToInt32.
Explicit interface implemetationPrivate methodIConvertible.ToUInt64Infrastructure. For a description of this member, see IConvertible.ToInt64.
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The Decimal value type represents decimal numbers ranging from positive 79,228,162,514,264,337,593,543,950,335 to negative 79,228,162,514,264,337,593,543,950,335. The Decimal value type is appropriate for financial calculations requiring large numbers of significant integral and fractional digits and no round-off errors. The Decimal type does not eliminate the need for rounding. Rather, it minimizes errors due to rounding. For example, the following code produces a result of 0.9999999999999999999999999999 rather than 1.


decimal dividend = Decimal.One;
decimal divisor = 3;
// The following displays 0.9999999999999999999999999999
outputBlock.Text += dividend / divisor * divisor + "\n";


When the result of the division and multiplication is passed to the Round method, the result suffers no loss of precision as the following code shows.


decimal dividend = Decimal.One;
decimal divisor = 3;
// The following displays 1.00
outputBlock.Text += Math.Round(dividend / divisor * divisor, 2) + "\n";


A decimal number is a floating-point value that consists of a sign, a numeric value where each digit in the value ranges from 0 to 9, and a scaling factor that indicates the position of a floating decimal point that separates the integral and fractional parts of the numeric value.

The binary representation of a Decimal value consists of a 1-bit sign, a 96-bit integer number, and a scaling factor used to divide the 96-bit integer and specify what portion of it is a decimal fraction. The scaling factor is implicitly the number 10, raised to an exponent ranging from 0 to 28. Therefore, the binary representation of a Decimal value is of the form, ((-296 to 296) / 10(0 to 28)), where -296-1 is equal to MinValue, and 296-1 is equal to MaxValue.

The scaling factor also preserves any trailing zeroes in a Decimal number. Trailing zeroes do not affect the value of a Decimal number in arithmetic or comparison operations. However, trailing zeroes can be revealed by the ToString method if an appropriate format string is applied.

Conversion Considerations

This type provides methods that convert Decimal values to and from SByte, Int16, Int32, Int64, Byte, UInt16, UInt32, and UInt64. Conversions from these integral types to Decimal are widening conversions that never lose information or throw exceptions.

Conversions from Decimal to any of the integral types are narrowing conversions that round the Decimal value to the nearest integer value toward zero. Some languages, such as C#, also support the conversion of Decimal values to Char values. If the result of these conversions cannot be represented in the destination type, an OverflowException is thrown.

The Decimal type also provides methods that convert Decimal values to and from Single and Double. Conversions from Decimal to Single or Double are narrowing conversions that might lose precision but not information about the magnitude of the converted value. The conversion will not throw an exception.

Conversions from Single or Double to Decimal throw an OverflowException if the result of the conversion cannot be represented as a Decimal.

Implemented Interfaces

This type implements interfaces IComparable, IComparable<T>, IFormattable, and IConvertible. Use the Convert class for conversions instead of this type's explicit interface member implementation of IConvertible.

The following code example demonstrates the use of Decimal.


/// <summary>
/// Keeping my fortune in Decimals to avoid the round-off errors.
/// </summary>
class PiggyBank
{
   protected decimal MyFortune;

   public void AddPenny()
   {
      MyFortune = Decimal.Add(MyFortune, .01m);
   }

   public decimal Capacity
   {
      get
      {
         return Decimal.MaxValue;
      }
   }

   public decimal Dollars
   {
      get
      {
         return Decimal.Floor(MyFortune);
      }
   }

   public decimal Cents
   {
      get
      {
         return Decimal.Subtract(MyFortune, Decimal.Floor(MyFortune));
      }
   }

   public override string ToString()
   {
      return MyFortune.ToString("C") + " in piggy bank";
   }
}


Windows Phone OS

Supported in: 8.1, 8.0, 7.1, 7.0

Windows Phone

All members of this type are thread safe. Members that appear to modify instance state actually return a new instance initialized with the new value. As with any other type, reading and writing to a shared variable that contains an instance of this type must be protected by a lock to guarantee thread safety.

Caution noteCaution:

Assigning an instance of this type is not thread safe on all hardware platforms because the binary representation of that instance might be too large to assign in a single atomic operation.

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