Attributes in Media Foundation

An attribute is a key/value pair, where the key is a GUID and the value is a PROPVARIANT. Attributes are used throughout Microsoft Media Foundation to configure objects, describe media formats, query object properties, and other purposes.

This topic contains the following sections.

About Attributes

An attribute is a key/value pair, where the key is a GUID and the value is a PROPVARIANT. Attribute values are restricted to the following data types:

  • Unsigned 32-bit integer (UINT32).
  • Unsigned 64-bit integer (UINT64).
  • 64-bit floating-point number.
  • GUID.
  • Null-terminated wide-character string.
  • Byte array.
  • IUnknown pointer.

These types are defined in the MF_ATTRIBUTE_TYPE enumeration. To set or retrieve attribute values, use the IMFAttributes interface. This interface contains type-safe methods to get and set values by data type. For example, to set a 32-bit integer, call IMFAttributes::SetUINT32. Attribute keys are unique within an object. If you set two different values with the same key, the second value overwrites the first.

Several Media Foundation interfaces inherit the IMFAttributes interface. Objects that expose this interface have optional or mandatory attributes that the application should set on the object, or have attributes that the application can retrieve. Also, some methods and functions take an IMFAttributes pointer as a parameter, which enables the application to set configuration information. The application must create an attribute store to hold the configuration attributes. To create an empty attribute store, call MFCreateAttributes.

The following code shows two functions. The first creates a new attribute store and sets a hypothetical attribute named MY_ATTRIBUTE with a string value. The second function retrieves the value of this attribute.


extern const GUID MY_ATTRIBUTE;

HRESULT ShowCreateAttributeStore(IMFAttributes **ppAttributes)
{
    IMFAttributes *pAttributes = NULL;
    const UINT32 cElements = 10;  // Starting size.

    // Create the empty attribute store.
    HRESULT hr = MFCreateAttributes(&pAttributes, cElements);

    // Set the MY_ATTRIBUTE attribute with a string value.
    if (SUCCEEDED(hr))
    {
        hr = pAttributes->SetString(
            MY_ATTRIBUTE,
            L"This is a string value"
            );
    }

    // Return the IMFAttributes pointer to the caller.
    if (SUCCEEDED(hr))
    {
        *ppAttributes = pAttributes;
        (*ppAttributes)->AddRef();
    }

    SAFE_RELEASE(pAttributes);

    return hr;
}

HRESULT ShowGetAttributes()
{
    IMFAttributes *pAttributes = NULL;
    WCHAR *pwszValue = NULL;
    UINT32 cchLength = 0;

    // Create the attribute store.
    HRESULT hr = ShowCreateAttributeStore(&pAttributes);

    // Get the attribute.
    if (SUCCEEDED(hr))
    {
        hr = pAttributes->GetAllocatedString(
            MY_ATTRIBUTE,
            &pwszValue,
            &cchLength
            );
    }

    CoTaskMemFree(pwszValue);
    SAFE_RELEASE(pAttributes);

    return hr;
}


For a complete list of Media Foundation attributes, see Media Foundation Attributes. The expected data type for each attribute is documented there.

Serializing Attributes

Media Foundation has two functions for serializing attribute stores. One writes the attributes to a byte array, the other writes them to a stream that supports the IStream interface. Each function has a corresponding function that loads the data.

OperationByte ArrayIStream
Save MFGetAttributesAsBlob MFSerializeAttributesToStream
Load MFInitAttributesFromBlob MFDeserializeAttributesFromStream

 

To write the contents of an attribute store into a byte array, call MFGetAttributesAsBlob. Attributes with IUnknown pointer values are ignored. To load the attributes back into an attribute store, call MFInitAttributesFromBlob.

To write an attribute store to a stream, call MFSerializeAttributesToStream. This function can marshal IUnknown pointer values. The caller must provide a stream object that implements the IStream interface. To load an attribute store from a stream, call MFDeserializeAttributesFromStream.

Implementing IMFAttributes

Media Foundation provides a stock implementation of IMFAttributes, which is obtained by calling the MFCreateAttributes function. In most situations, you should use this implementation, and not provide your own custom implementation.

There is one situation when you might need to implement the IMFAttributes interface: If you implement a second interface that inherits IMFAttributes. In that case, you must provide implementations for the IMFAttributes methods inherited by the second interface.

In this situation, it is recommended to wrap the existing Media Foundation implementation of IMFAttributes. The following code shows a class template that holds an IMFAttributes pointer and wraps every IMFAttributes method, except for the IUnknown methods.


#include <assert.h>

// Helper class to implement IMFAttributes. 

// This is an abstract class; the derived class must implement the IUnknown 
// methods. This class is a wrapper for the standard attribute store provided 
// in Media Foundation.

// template parameter: 
// The interface you are implementing, either IMFAttributes or an interface 
// that inherits IMFAttributes, such as IMFActivate

template <class IFACE=IMFAttributes>
class CBaseAttributes : public IFACE
{
protected:
    IMFAttributes *m_pAttributes;

    // This version of the constructor does not initialize the 
    // attribute store. The derived class must call Initialize() in 
    // its own constructor.
    CBaseAttributes() : m_pAttributes(NULL)
    {
    }

    // This version of the constructor initializes the attribute 
    // store, but the derived class must pass an HRESULT parameter 
    // to the constructor.

    CBaseAttributes(HRESULT& hr, UINT32 cInitialSize = 0) : m_pAttributes(NULL)
    {
        hr = Initialize(cInitialSize);
    }

    // The next version of the constructor uses a caller-provided 
    // implementation of IMFAttributes.

    // (Sometimes you want to delegate IMFAttributes calls to some 
    // other object that implements IMFAttributes, rather than using 
    // MFCreateAttributes.)

    CBaseAttributes(HRESULT& hr, IUnknown *pUnk)
    {
        hr = Initialize(pUnk);
    }

    virtual ~CBaseAttributes()
    {
        if (m_pAttributes)
        {
            m_pAttributes->Release();
        }
    }

    // Initializes the object by creating the standard Media Foundation attribute store.
    HRESULT Initialize(UINT32 cInitialSize = 0)
    {
        if (m_pAttributes == NULL)
        {
            return MFCreateAttributes(&m_pAttributes, cInitialSize); 
        }
        else
        {
            return S_OK;
        }
    }

    // Initializes this object from a caller-provided attribute store.
    // pUnk: Pointer to an object that exposes IMFAttributes.
    HRESULT Initialize(IUnknown *pUnk)
    {
        if (m_pAttributes)
        {
            m_pAttributes->Release();
            m_pAttributes = NULL;
        }


        return pUnk->QueryInterface(IID_PPV_ARGS(&m_pAttributes));
    }

public:

    // IMFAttributes methods

    STDMETHODIMP GetItem(REFGUID guidKey, PROPVARIANT* pValue)
    {
        assert(m_pAttributes);
        return m_pAttributes->GetItem(guidKey, pValue);
    }

    STDMETHODIMP GetItemType(REFGUID guidKey, MF_ATTRIBUTE_TYPE* pType)
    {
        assert(m_pAttributes);
        return m_pAttributes->GetItemType(guidKey, pType);
    }

    STDMETHODIMP CompareItem(REFGUID guidKey, REFPROPVARIANT Value, BOOL* pbResult)
    {
        assert(m_pAttributes);
        return m_pAttributes->CompareItem(guidKey, Value, pbResult);
    }

    STDMETHODIMP Compare(
        IMFAttributes* pTheirs, 
        MF_ATTRIBUTES_MATCH_TYPE MatchType, 
        BOOL* pbResult
        )
    {
        assert(m_pAttributes);
        return m_pAttributes->Compare(pTheirs, MatchType, pbResult);
    }

    STDMETHODIMP GetUINT32(REFGUID guidKey, UINT32* punValue)
    {
        assert(m_pAttributes);
        return m_pAttributes->GetUINT32(guidKey, punValue);
    }

    STDMETHODIMP GetUINT64(REFGUID guidKey, UINT64* punValue)
    {
        assert(m_pAttributes);
        return m_pAttributes->GetUINT64(guidKey, punValue);
    }

    STDMETHODIMP GetDouble(REFGUID guidKey, double* pfValue)
    {
        assert(m_pAttributes);
        return m_pAttributes->GetDouble(guidKey, pfValue);
    }

    STDMETHODIMP GetGUID(REFGUID guidKey, GUID* pguidValue)
    {
        assert(m_pAttributes);
        return m_pAttributes->GetGUID(guidKey, pguidValue);
    }

    STDMETHODIMP GetStringLength(REFGUID guidKey, UINT32* pcchLength)
    {
        assert(m_pAttributes);
        return m_pAttributes->GetStringLength(guidKey, pcchLength);
    }

    STDMETHODIMP GetString(REFGUID guidKey, LPWSTR pwszValue, UINT32 cchBufSize, UINT32* pcchLength)
    {
        assert(m_pAttributes);
        return m_pAttributes->GetString(guidKey, pwszValue, cchBufSize, pcchLength);
    }

    STDMETHODIMP GetAllocatedString(REFGUID guidKey, LPWSTR* ppwszValue, UINT32* pcchLength)
    {
        assert(m_pAttributes);
        return m_pAttributes->GetAllocatedString(guidKey, ppwszValue, pcchLength);
    }

    STDMETHODIMP GetBlobSize(REFGUID guidKey, UINT32* pcbBlobSize)
    {
        assert(m_pAttributes);
        return m_pAttributes->GetBlobSize(guidKey, pcbBlobSize);
    }

    STDMETHODIMP GetBlob(REFGUID guidKey, UINT8* pBuf, UINT32 cbBufSize, UINT32* pcbBlobSize)
    {
        assert(m_pAttributes);
        return m_pAttributes->GetBlob(guidKey, pBuf, cbBufSize, pcbBlobSize);
    }

    STDMETHODIMP GetAllocatedBlob(REFGUID guidKey, UINT8** ppBuf, UINT32* pcbSize)
    {
        assert(m_pAttributes);
        return m_pAttributes->GetAllocatedBlob(guidKey, ppBuf, pcbSize);
    }

    STDMETHODIMP GetUnknown(REFGUID guidKey, REFIID riid, LPVOID* ppv)
    {
        assert(m_pAttributes);
        return m_pAttributes->GetUnknown(guidKey, riid, ppv);
    }

    STDMETHODIMP SetItem(REFGUID guidKey, REFPROPVARIANT Value)
    {
        assert(m_pAttributes);
        return m_pAttributes->SetItem(guidKey, Value);
    }

    STDMETHODIMP DeleteItem(REFGUID guidKey)
    {
        assert(m_pAttributes);
        return m_pAttributes->DeleteItem(guidKey);
    }

    STDMETHODIMP DeleteAllItems()
    {
        assert(m_pAttributes);
        return m_pAttributes->DeleteAllItems();
    }

    STDMETHODIMP SetUINT32(REFGUID guidKey, UINT32 unValue)
    {
        assert(m_pAttributes);
        return m_pAttributes->SetUINT32(guidKey, unValue);
    }

    STDMETHODIMP SetUINT64(REFGUID guidKey,UINT64 unValue)
    {
        assert(m_pAttributes);
        return m_pAttributes->SetUINT64(guidKey, unValue);
    }

    STDMETHODIMP SetDouble(REFGUID guidKey, double fValue)
    {
        assert(m_pAttributes);
        return m_pAttributes->SetDouble(guidKey, fValue);
    }

    STDMETHODIMP SetGUID(REFGUID guidKey, REFGUID guidValue)
    {
        assert(m_pAttributes);
        return m_pAttributes->SetGUID(guidKey, guidValue);
    }

    STDMETHODIMP SetString(REFGUID guidKey, LPCWSTR wszValue)
    {
        assert(m_pAttributes);
        return m_pAttributes->SetString(guidKey, wszValue);
    }

    STDMETHODIMP SetBlob(REFGUID guidKey, const UINT8* pBuf, UINT32 cbBufSize)
    {
        assert(m_pAttributes);
        return m_pAttributes->SetBlob(guidKey, pBuf, cbBufSize);
    }

    STDMETHODIMP SetUnknown(REFGUID guidKey, IUnknown* pUnknown)
    {
        assert(m_pAttributes);
        return m_pAttributes->SetUnknown(guidKey, pUnknown);
    }

    STDMETHODIMP LockStore()
    {
        assert(m_pAttributes);
        return m_pAttributes->LockStore();
    }

    STDMETHODIMP UnlockStore()
    {
        assert(m_pAttributes);
        return m_pAttributes->UnlockStore();
    }

    STDMETHODIMP GetCount(UINT32* pcItems)
    {
        assert(m_pAttributes);
        return m_pAttributes->GetCount(pcItems);
    }

    STDMETHODIMP GetItemByIndex(UINT32 unIndex, GUID* pguidKey, PROPVARIANT* pValue)
    {
        assert(m_pAttributes);
        return m_pAttributes->GetItemByIndex(unIndex, pguidKey, pValue);
    }

    STDMETHODIMP CopyAllItems(IMFAttributes* pDest)
    {
        assert(m_pAttributes);
        return m_pAttributes->CopyAllItems(pDest);
    }

    // Helper functions
    
    HRESULT SerializeToStream(DWORD dwOptions, IStream* pStm)      
        // dwOptions: Flags from MF_ATTRIBUTE_SERIALIZE_OPTIONS
    {
        assert(m_pAttributes);
        return MFSerializeAttributesToStream(m_pAttributes, dwOptions, pStm);
    }

    HRESULT DeserializeFromStream(DWORD dwOptions, IStream* pStm)
    {
        assert(m_pAttributes);
        return MFDeserializeAttributesFromStream(m_pAttributes, dwOptions, pStm);
    }

    // SerializeToBlob: Stores the attributes in a byte array. 
    // 
    // ppBuf: Receives a pointer to the byte array. 
    // pcbSize: Receives the size of the byte array.
    //
    // The caller must free the array using CoTaskMemFree.
    HRESULT SerializeToBlob(UINT8 **ppBuffer, UINT32 *pcbSize)
    {
        assert(m_pAttributes);

        if (ppBuffer == NULL)
        {
            return E_POINTER;
        }
        if (pcbSize == NULL)
        {
            return E_POINTER;
        }

        *ppBuffer = NULL;
        *pcbSize = 0;

        UINT32 cbSize = 0;
        BYTE *pBuffer = NULL;

        HRESULT hr = MFGetAttributesAsBlobSize(m_pAttributes, &cbSize);

        if (FAILED(hr))
        {
            return hr;
        }

        pBuffer = (BYTE*)CoTaskMemAlloc(cbSize);
        if (pBuffer == NULL)
        {
            return E_OUTOFMEMORY;
        }

        hr = MFGetAttributesAsBlob(m_pAttributes, pBuffer, cbSize);

        if (SUCCEEDED(hr))
        {
            *ppBuffer = pBuffer;
            *pcbSize = cbSize;
        }
        else
        {
            CoTaskMemFree(pBuffer);
        }
        return hr;
    }
    
    HRESULT DeserializeFromBlob(const UINT8* pBuffer, UINT cbSize)
    {
        assert(m_pAttributes);
        return MFInitAttributesFromBlob(m_pAttributes, pBuffer, cbSize);
    }

    HRESULT GetRatio(REFGUID guidKey, UINT32* pnNumerator, UINT32* punDenominator)
    {
        assert(m_pAttributes);
        return MFGetAttributeRatio(m_pAttributes, guidKey, pnNumerator, punDenominator);
    }

    HRESULT SetRatio(REFGUID guidKey, UINT32 unNumerator, UINT32 unDenominator)
    {
        assert(m_pAttributes);
        return MFSetAttributeRatio(m_pAttributes, guidKey, unNumerator, unDenominator);
    }

    // Gets an attribute whose value represents the size of something (eg a video frame).
    HRESULT GetSize(REFGUID guidKey, UINT32* punWidth, UINT32* punHeight)
    {
        assert(m_pAttributes);
        return MFGetAttributeSize(m_pAttributes, guidKey, punWidth, punHeight);
    }

    // Sets an attribute whose value represents the size of something (eg a video frame).
    HRESULT SetSize(REFGUID guidKey, UINT32 unWidth, UINT32 unHeight)
    {
        assert(m_pAttributes);
        return MFSetAttributeSize (m_pAttributes, guidKey, unWidth, unHeight);
    }
};


The following code shows how to derive a class from this template:


#include <shlwapi.h>

class MyObject : public CBaseAttributes<>
{
    MyObject() : m_nRefCount(1) { }
    ~MyObject() { }

    long m_nRefCount;

public:

    // IUnknown
    STDMETHODIMP MyObject::QueryInterface(REFIID riid, void** ppv)
    {
        static const QITAB qit[] = 
        {
            QITABENT(MyObject, IMFAttributes),
            { 0 },
        };
        return QISearch(this, qit, riid, ppv);
    }

    STDMETHODIMP_(ULONG) MyObject::AddRef()
    {
        return InterlockedIncrement(&m_nRefCount);
    }

    STDMETHODIMP_(ULONG) MyObject::Release()
    {
        ULONG uCount = InterlockedDecrement(&m_nRefCount);
        if (uCount == 0)
        {
            delete this;
        }
        return uCount;
    }

    // Static function to create an instance of the object.

    static HRESULT CreateInstance(MyObject **ppObject)
    {
        HRESULT hr = S_OK;

        MyObject *pObject = new MyObject();
        if (pObject == NULL)
        {
            return E_OUTOFMEMORY;
        }

        // Initialize the attribute store.
        hr = pObject->Initialize();

        if (FAILED(hr))
        {
            delete pObject;
            return hr;
        }

        *ppObject = pObject;
        (*ppObject)->AddRef();

        return S_OK;
    }
};


You must call CBaseAttributes::Initialize to create the attribute store. In the previous example, that is done inside a static creation function.

The template argument is an interface type, which defaults to IMFAttributes. If your object implements an interface that inherits IMFAttributes, such as IMFActivate, set the template argument equal to name of the derived interface.

Related topics

Media Foundation Primitives

 

 

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