NLS: Unicode Normalization Sample

The sample application described in this topic demonstrates the representation of strings using Unicode normalization.

The sample application calls all four Unicode normalization forms with the same input string. A call is then made with invalid Unicode to demonstrate how the index of bad character code works. Finally the application passes a string that expands to be abnormally long, requiring multiple string normalization calls to to get an appropriate buffer size.

This sample demonstrates the following NLS API functions:



// THIS CODE AND INFORMATION IS PROVIDED "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF 
// ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO 
// THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND/OR FITNESS FOR A 
// PARTICULAR PURPOSE. 
// 
// Copyright (c) Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. 

// ============ Demonstration of Normalization APIs ============ 

#include "stdafx.h"
#include "windows.h"
#include <stdio.h>
#include <tchar.h>
#include "malloc.h"

// Print out a string using code points for the non-ASCII values 
void DumpString(LPWSTR pInput)
{
    while (*pInput != 0)
    {
        if (*pInput < 0x80)
            wprintf(L"%c", *pInput);
        else
            wprintf(L"\\x%4.4x", *pInput);
        pInput++;
    }
    wprintf(L"\n");
}

// Check if normalized and display normalized output for a particular normalization form 
void TryNormalization(NORM_FORM form, LPWSTR strInput)
{
    // Test if the string is normalized 
    if (IsNormalizedString(form, strInput, -1))
    {
        wprintf(L"Already normalized in this form\n");
    }
    else
    {
        // It was not normalized, so normalize it 
        int    iSizeGuess;
        LPWSTR pBuffer;

        // How big is our buffer (quick guess, usually enough) 
        iSizeGuess = NormalizeString(form, strInput, -1, NULL, 0);

        if (iSizeGuess == 0)
        {
            wprintf(L"Error %d checking for size\n", GetLastError());
        }

        while(iSizeGuess > 0)
        {
            pBuffer = (LPWSTR)malloc(iSizeGuess * sizeof(WCHAR));
            if (pBuffer)
            {
                // Normalize the string 
                int iActualSize = NormalizeString(form, strInput, -1, pBuffer, iSizeGuess);
                iSizeGuess = 0;
                if (iActualSize <= 0 && GetLastError() != ERROR_SUCCESS)
                {
                    // Error during normalization 
                    wprintf(L"Error %d during normalization\n", GetLastError());
                    if (GetLastError() == ERROR_INSUFFICIENT_BUFFER)
                    {
                        // If the buffer is too small, try again with a bigger buffer. 
                        wprintf(L"Insufficient buffer, new suggested buffer size %d\n", -iActualSize);
                        iSizeGuess = -iActualSize;
                    }
                    else if (GetLastError() == ERROR_NO_UNICODE_TRANSLATION)
                    {
                        wprintf(L"Invalid Unicode found at input character index %d\n", -iActualSize);
                    }
                }
                else
                {
                    // Display the normalized string 
                    DumpString(pBuffer);
                }

                // Free the buffer 
                free (pBuffer);
            }
            else
            {
                wprintf(L"Error allocating buffer\n");
                iSizeGuess = 0;
            }
        }
    }
}

int __cdecl wmain(int argc, WCHAR* argv[])
{
     // Tèst string to nørmälize 
     LPWSTR strInput = L"T\u00e8st string \uFF54\uFF4F n\u00f8rm\u00e4lize";

    wprintf(L"Comparison of Normalization Forms, input string::\n");
    DumpString(strInput);

    // Try it in the 4 forms 
    wprintf(L"\n");
    wprintf(L"String in Form C:\n  ");
    TryNormalization(NormalizationC, strInput);

    wprintf(L"\n");
    wprintf(L"String in Form KC:\n  ");
    TryNormalization(NormalizationKC, strInput);

    wprintf(L"\n");
    wprintf(L"String in Form D:\n  ");
    TryNormalization(NormalizationD, strInput);

    wprintf(L"\n");
    wprintf(L"String in Form KD:\n  ");
    TryNormalization(NormalizationKD, strInput);

    // Note that invalid Unicode would show an error (illegal lone surrogate in this case) 
    wprintf(L"\n");
    wprintf(L"Attempt to normalize illegal lone surrogate:\n");
    TryNormalization(NormalizationC, L"Bad surrogate is here: '\xd800'");

    // Contrived strings can cause the initial size guess to be low 
    wprintf(L"\n");
    wprintf(L"Attempt to normalize a string that expands beyond the initial guess\n");
    TryNormalization(NormalizationC,
        // These all expand to 2 characters 
        L"\u0958\u0958\u0958\u0958\u0958\u0958\u0958\u0958\u0958\u0958\u0958\u0958"
        L"\u0958\u0958\u0958\u0958\u0958\u0958\u0958\u0958\u0958\u0958\u0958\u0958"
        L"\u0958\u0958\u0958\u0958\u0958\u0958\u0958\u0958\u0958\u0958\u0958\u0958"
        L"\u0958\u0958\u0958\u0958\u0958\u0958\u0958\u0958\u0958\u0958\u0958\u0958"
        // These all expand to 3 characters 
        L"\ufb2c\ufb2c\ufb2c\ufb2c\ufb2c\ufb2c\ufb2c\ufb2c\ufb2c\ufb2c\ufb2c\ufb2c"
        L"\ufb2c\ufb2c\ufb2c\ufb2c\ufb2c\ufb2c\ufb2c\ufb2c\ufb2c\ufb2c\ufb2c\ufb2c");
}



 

 

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