MUI: Application-Specific Settings Sample (Windows Vista)

The sample application described in this topic is another Hello MUI application that supports application-specific settings for its user interface languages and runs on Windows Vista and later.

This application first parses a delimited language list in a text file and converts it to a multi-string language list to define the application-specific language preferences. The delimiters supported in the sample are ",", ";", ":", and " ". After parsing the list, the code finds and loads the resources in the identified language, just as the system settings sample does. This code loads and releases resource files using calls to the resource loader functions LoadLibraryEx and FreeLibrary.


// Vista and later enabled application, this application will not work on OS versions prior to Vista

#include <windows.h>
#include <wchar.h>
#include <strsafe.h>
#include "resource.h"

#define SUFFICIENTLY_LARGE_STRING_BUFFER (MAX_PATH*2)
#define USER_CONFIGURATION_STRING_BUFFER (((LOCALE_NAME_MAX_LENGTH+1)*5)+1)
#define SUFFICIENTLY_LARGE_ERROR_BUFFER (1024*2)

BOOL GetMyUserDefinedLanguages(WCHAR * langStr, DWORD langStrSize);
BOOL ConvertMyLangStrToMultiLangStr(WCHAR * langStr, WCHAR * langMultiStr, DWORD langMultiStrSize);

int WINAPI WinMain(HINSTANCE hInstance, HINSTANCE hPrevInstance, LPSTR lpCmdLine, int nCmdShow)
{
    UNREFERENCED_PARAMETER(hInstance);
    UNREFERENCED_PARAMETER(hPrevInstance);
    UNREFERENCED_PARAMETER(lpCmdLine);
    UNREFERENCED_PARAMETER(nCmdShow);

    // The following code presents a hypothetical, yet common use pattern of MUI technology
    WCHAR displayBuffer[SUFFICIENTLY_LARGE_ERROR_BUFFER];

    // 1. Application starts by applying any user defined language preferences
    // (language setting is potentially optional for an application that wishes to strictly use OS system language fallback)
    // 1a. Application looks in pre-defined location for user preferences (registry, file, web, etc.)
    WCHAR userLanguagesString[USER_CONFIGURATION_STRING_BUFFER*2];
    if(!GetMyUserDefinedLanguages(userLanguagesString,USER_CONFIGURATION_STRING_BUFFER*2))
    {
        swprintf_s(displayBuffer,SUFFICIENTLY_LARGE_ERROR_BUFFER,L"FAILURE: Unable to find the user defined language configuration, last error = %d.",GetLastError());
        MessageBoxW(NULL,displayBuffer,L"HelloMUI ERROR!",MB_OK | MB_ICONERROR);
        return 1; // exit
    }
    // 1b. Application converts the user defined 'readable' languages to the proper multi-string 'less readable' language name format
    WCHAR userLanguagesMultiString[USER_CONFIGURATION_STRING_BUFFER];
    if(!ConvertMyLangStrToMultiLangStr(userLanguagesString,userLanguagesMultiString,USER_CONFIGURATION_STRING_BUFFER))
    {
        swprintf_s(displayBuffer,SUFFICIENTLY_LARGE_ERROR_BUFFER,L"FAILURE: Unable to convert the user defined language configuration to multi-string, last error = %d.",GetLastError());
        MessageBoxW(NULL,displayBuffer,L"HelloMUI ERROR!",MB_OK | MB_ICONERROR);
        return 1; // exit
    }
    // 1c. Application now sets the appropriate fallback list
    DWORD langCount = 0;
    // next commented out line of code could be used on Windows 7 and forward
    // using SetProcessPreferredUILanguages is recommended for new applications (esp. multi-threaded applications)
//    if(!SetProcessPreferredUILanguages(MUI_LANGUAGE_NAME,userLanguagesMultiString,&langCount) || langCount == 0)
    // the following line of code is supported on Windows Vista and forward
    if(!SetThreadPreferredUILanguages(MUI_LANGUAGE_NAME,userLanguagesMultiString,&langCount) || langCount == 0)
    {
        swprintf_s(displayBuffer,SUFFICIENTLY_LARGE_ERROR_BUFFER,L"FAILURE: Unable to set the user defined, last error = %d.",GetLastError());
        MessageBoxW(NULL,displayBuffer,L"HelloMUI ERROR!",MB_OK | MB_ICONERROR);
        return 1; // exit
    }
    // NOTES on step #1:
    // an application developer that makes the assumption the fallback list provided by the
    // system / OS is entirely sufficient may or may not be making a good assumption based 
    // mostly on:
    // A. your choice of languages installed with your application
    // B. the languages on the OS at application install time
    // C. the OS users propensity to install/uninstall language packs
    // D. the OS users propensity to change laguage settings

    // 2. Application obtains access to the proper resource container 
    // for standard Win32 resource loading this is normally a PE module - use LoadLibraryEx
    // LoadLibraryEx is the preferred alternative for resource modules as used below because it
    // provides increased security and performance over that of LoadLibrary
    HMODULE resContainer = LoadLibraryExW(HELLO_MODULE_CONTRIVED_FILE_PATH,NULL,LOAD_LIBRARY_AS_IMAGE_RESOURCE | LOAD_LIBRARY_AS_DATAFILE);
    if(!resContainer)
    {
        swprintf_s(displayBuffer,SUFFICIENTLY_LARGE_ERROR_BUFFER,L"FAILURE: Unable to load the resource container module, last error = %d.",GetLastError());
        MessageBoxW(NULL,displayBuffer,L"HelloMUI ERROR!",MB_OK | MB_ICONERROR);
        return 1; // exit
    }

    // 3. Application parses the resource container to find the appropriate item
    WCHAR szHello[SUFFICIENTLY_LARGE_STRING_BUFFER];
    if(LoadStringW(resContainer,HELLO_MUI_STR_0,szHello,SUFFICIENTLY_LARGE_STRING_BUFFER) == 0)
    {
        swprintf_s(displayBuffer,SUFFICIENTLY_LARGE_ERROR_BUFFER,L"FAILURE: Unable to load the resource string, last error = %d.",GetLastError());
        MessageBoxW(NULL,displayBuffer,L"HelloMUI ERROR!",MB_OK | MB_ICONERROR);
        FreeLibrary(resContainer);
        return 1; // exit
    }

    // 4. Application presents the discovered resource to the user via UI
    swprintf_s(displayBuffer,SUFFICIENTLY_LARGE_ERROR_BUFFER,L"%s MUI",szHello);
    MessageBoxW(NULL,displayBuffer,L"HelloMUI",MB_OK | MB_ICONINFORMATION);

    // 5. Application cleans up memory associated with the resource container after this item is no longer needed.
    if(!FreeLibrary(resContainer))
    {
        swprintf_s(displayBuffer,SUFFICIENTLY_LARGE_ERROR_BUFFER,L"FAILURE: Unable to unload the resource container, last error = %d.",GetLastError());
        MessageBoxW(NULL,displayBuffer,L"HelloMUI ERROR!",MB_OK | MB_ICONERROR);
        return 1; // exit
    }

    return 0;
}

BOOL GetMyUserDefinedLanguages(WCHAR * langStr, DWORD langStrSize)
{
    BOOL rtnVal = FALSE;
    // very simple implementation - assumes that first 'langStrSize' characters of the 
    // L".\\langs.txt" file comprises a string of one or more languages
    HANDLE langConfigFileHandle = CreateFileW(L".\\langs.txt", GENERIC_READ, 0, 
        NULL, OPEN_EXISTING, FILE_ATTRIBUTE_NORMAL, NULL);
    if(langConfigFileHandle != INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE)
    {
        // clear out the input variables
        DWORD bytesActuallyRead = 0;
        if(ReadFile(langConfigFileHandle,langStr,langStrSize*sizeof(WCHAR),&bytesActuallyRead,NULL) && bytesActuallyRead > 0)
        {
            rtnVal = TRUE;
            DWORD nullIndex = (bytesActuallyRead/sizeof(WCHAR) < langStrSize) ? bytesActuallyRead/sizeof(WCHAR) : langStrSize;
            langStr[nullIndex] = L'\0';
        }
        CloseHandle(langConfigFileHandle);
    }
    return rtnVal;
}

BOOL ConvertMyLangStrToMultiLangStr(WCHAR * langStr, WCHAR * langMultiStr, DWORD langMultiStrSize)
{
    BOOL rtnVal = FALSE;
    size_t strLen = 0;
    rtnVal = SUCCEEDED(StringCchLengthW(langStr,USER_CONFIGURATION_STRING_BUFFER*2,&strLen));
    if(rtnVal && strLen > 0 && langMultiStr && langMultiStrSize > 0)
    {
        WCHAR * langMultiStrPtr = langMultiStr;
        WCHAR * last = langStr + (langStr[0] == 0xFEFF ? 1 : 0);
        WCHAR * context = last;
        WCHAR * next = wcstok_s(last,L",; :",&context);
        while(next && rtnVal)
        {
            // make sure you validate the user input
            if(SUCCEEDED(StringCchLengthW(last,LOCALE_NAME_MAX_LENGTH,&strLen)) && 
                IsValidLocaleName(next))
            {
                langMultiStrPtr[0] = L'\0';
                rtnVal &= SUCCEEDED(StringCchCatW(langMultiStrPtr,(langMultiStrSize - (langMultiStrPtr - langMultiStr)),next));
                langMultiStrPtr += strLen + 1;
            }
            next = wcstok_s(NULL,L",; :",&context);
            if(next)
                last = next;
        }
        if(rtnVal && (langMultiStrSize - (langMultiStrPtr - langMultiStr))) // make sure there is a double null term for the multi-string
        {
            langMultiStrPtr[0] = L'\0';
        }
        else // fail and guard anyone whom might use the multi-string
        {
            langMultiStr[0] = L'\0';
            langMultiStr[1] = L'\0';
        }
    }
    return rtnVal;
}


 

 

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